|Scientific Name:||Mammillaria pennispinosa|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Accepted as a valid species by Anderson (2001), Hunt (1999) and Pilbeam (1999). Two subspecies are recognized, the nominate form and subsp. nazasensis (Glass & R.C.Foster) D.R.Hunt. All the subspecies were previously assessed in 2002 (the nominate as Endangered and subsp. nazasensis as Critically Endangered), but as they have not been reassessed they are now excluded.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B2ab(v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Fitz Maurice, W.A. & Fitz Maurice, B|
|Reviewer(s):||Superina, M. & Goettsch, B.K.|
Mammillaria pennispinosa is listed as Critically Endangered due to its very restricted area of occupancy of less than 1 km2, its occurrence in a single location, and ongoing population decline due to illegal collection.
|Range Description:||This species is found in one location northwest of Gómez Palacio in the north of Durango, Mexico, where it grows at altitudes from 1,300 to 1,500 m asl. The area of occupancy is conservatively estimated to be a maximum of 1 km2.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is uncommon within its very limited range. The current population is estimated to be less than 1,250 individuals.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found in crevices in steep volcanic rock in desert.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is collected from the wild. It is widely traded in Europe and is in commercial cultivation.|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is threatened by illegal collecting. The habitat is a standard stop for cactus tour groups from Europe and is now well-known to both commercial and amateur collectors.|
This cactus needs greater protection from illegal collection in the wild. It is listed on CITES Appendix II, but enforcement of the laws in the countries of destination is needed. Plants have been widely propagated worldwide for more than 40 years. It is not present in any protected area.
This species is legally protected in Mexico by the national list of species at risk of extinction, NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, where it is listed under category “subject to special protection” (Pr; SEMARNAT 2010).
|Citation:||Fitz Maurice, W.A. & Fitz Maurice, B 2013. Mammillaria pennispinosa. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 April 2015.|
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