|Scientific Name:||Hippopotamus guldbergi|
|Species Authority:||Fovet, Faure & Guérin, 2011|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Two dwarfed hippopotami were described from sub-fossil remains at Madagascar: Hippopotamus lemerlei and Hippopotamus madagascariensis. In a critical contribution, Stuenes (1989) thoroughly described the morphological differences between these species and provided detailed diagnoses. The origin of these species remains uncertain: they are generally seen as deriving from continental species of Hippopotamus, maybe from the extant Hippopotamus amphibius. A third extinct Madagascan species, Hippopotamus laloumena, was proposed by Faure and Guérin (1990) on limited evidence. Its dissimilarity from Hippopotamus amphibius needs to be clarified. It may represent evidence for sporadic Mozambique Channel crossing by individuals of the extant large species during the Holocene, including since the European colonization of Madagascar (Burney et al. 2004).
Fovet et al. (2011) provide evidence that Guldberg's type specimen of H. madagscariensis actually pertains to the other small species, H. lemmerlei. In 1902, C.J.F. Major re-described H. madagascariensis Gulberg, 1883 using a new Malagasy skeleton which was quite different to H. lemmerlei. However, because H. madagscariensis is no more than a replacement name for H. lemerlei, it cannot be used. Hence Fovet et al. (2001) proposed the new name H. guldbergi to designate the species described in 1902 by C.J.F. Major.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Extinct ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Lewison, R., Oliver, W. & Hoffmann, M.|
Madagascan hippopotami may have survived until recent times (MacPhee and Flemming 1999), notably on the basis of local oral tradition, but are now certainly extinct.
|Range Description:||Hippopotamus guldbergi is mostly known from localities of highland Madagascar (see a list of locality in Stuenes 1989). Last appearance datum of Madagascan dwarf hippopotamids remains uncertain. Most recent dates were provided through 14C dating and indicate c. 1000 AD (Dewar 1984, Burney et al. 2004). However, MacPhee and Flemming (1999) proposed it as recent on the basis of local oral tradition (Flacourt 1661) and the possible younger age of some localities. However, this may only reflect sporadic occurrence of Hippopotamus amphibius.|
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|Population:||This species is now extinct.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Hippopotamus guldbergi retains low orbits and a relatively short muzzle. Stuenes (1989) used these features to propose a more terrestrial way of life for this species than in Hippopotamus amphibius. Similarly, Stuenes (1989) indicated a cranio-mandibular morphology closer to that of Choeropsis liberiensis, the extant Pigmy Hippo from western Africa. She further noted that Hippopotamus guldbergi exhibited teeth generally more worn than in Hippopotamus lemerlei. These characters both suggest a diet differing from that of the other Madagascan dwarf hippopotamid.
The ecology of Hippopotamus guldbergi may have been close to that of Mediterranean extinct dwarf hippopotamids, but further investigation of this question is required, notably on postcranial anatomy, stable isotope enamel/bone contents, and dental wear.
|Major Threat(s):||Island dwarf hippopotamids were probably easy prey for human hunters. This may have lead to their quick extinction in the Mediterranean (Simmons 1988). The same impact from human hunters may have been effective in at least accelerating extinction of Madagascan hippopotamids. MacPhee and Burney (1991) indicate evidence for hippopotamid butchery in south-western Madagascar as early as the 1st century AD. Co-occurrence of humans and hippopotamids on Madagascar, therefore, lasted for a minimum of 1,000 years. How much humans have contributed to this extinction is yet to be determined.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is now extinct.|
|Citation:||Boisserie, J.-R. 2014. Hippopotamus guldbergi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 August 2015.|
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