|Scientific Name:||Presbytis chrysomelas|
|Species Authority:||(Müller, 1838)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Presbytis arwasca Miller, 1934
Presbytis femoralis subspecies chrysomelas (Müller, 1838)
|Taxonomic Notes:||This taxon was formerly considered a subspecies of P. femoralis and P. melalophos. The number of subspecies is disputed. In addition to the two generally recognized forms (P. c. chrysomelas and P. c. cruciger) there is an additional, isolated population found only in a small area of southeastern Sarawak (Betong, Saribas; Nimong; Batang Lupar) that probably represents an as yet undescribed subspecies (Groves 2001).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Nijman, V., Hon, J. & Richardson, M.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Critically Endangered as it is only known from five sites, where populations have been reduced by approximately 80% over the past 30 years (approximately three generations). In addition, the area of occupancy has been reduced dramatically. This species was once considered common, thus there is great concern that it is among the rarest primates in the region after 100 years of persecution and habitat loss. This is now considered one of the rarest primates in the world. It occurs in less than 5% of its historic range. Additional conservation measures are urgent as this species could go extinct if current trends continue.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the island of Borneo, it occurs in Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan) and Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). It is found north and northeast of the Kapuas River in northwestern Kalimantan, and through Sarawak (mainly in coastal areas) and Brunei as far as Melalap, Sabah (Groves 2001). The species is found only in remaining habitat within its extent of occurrence; much of its mapped range is historical. There is some confusion about where this species still remains, as many of the records are also historical.
P. c. chrysomelas:
Occurs in western Brunei, northwestern Kalimantan (northeast of the Kapuas River) and western Sarawak, as far as the IV Division of Sarawak (Groves 2001).
P. c. cruciger:
Ranges from the Baram District (in northeastern Sarawak) to Sabah (Groves 2001).
Native:Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Kalimantan); Malaysia (Sarawak)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species was reported as common in the early 20th century (Baccari 1904; Banks 1931), in areas where today it no longer occurs. Recent records are from five sites: Maludam National Park (Malaysia); Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary (Malaysia); Similajau National Park (Malaysia); Tanjung Datu National Park (Malaysia); the Lingga area of Sarawak (Malaysia); and possibly Betung Kerihun National Park (Indonesia) (J. Hon pers. comm.). Combined population estimates from these sites are very low (approximately 200-500 individuals) (J. Hon and V. Nijman pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in swamp and lowland forests, as well as mangrove. Group size is 3-7 individuals (J. Hon pers. comm.).|
|Major Threat(s):||Habitat conversion has historically been the main threat to this species, resulting in its disappearance from most of its former range. It has in particular been affected by expanding plantations, especially oil palm, in recent years.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. The majority of the remaining populations are found in national parks. The species is protected in Sarawak. Further research and surveys are necessary to confirm the persistence and population size of the five remaining sites, which include Maludam National Park, Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Similajau National Park, and Tanjung Datu National Park in Malaysia, and possibly Betung Kerihun National Park in Indonesia. It is present as well in the Lingga area of Sarawak, which has recently been proposed as a protected area.|
|Citation:||Nijman, V., Hon, J. & Richardson, M. 2008. Presbytis chrysomelas. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 December 2013.|
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