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Macaca pagensis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Macaca pagensis
Species Authority: (Miller, 1903)
Common Name(s):
English Pagai Island Macaque, Pagai Macaque
Synonym(s):
Macaca mentaveensis de Beaux, 1923
Taxonomic Notes: Until recently, this species included Macaca siberu (Roos et al. 2003).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd+4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species is considered Critically Endangered due to a past and continued population decline, estimated at more that 80% over the past 40 years (3 generations), due to hunting and loss of habitat.
History:
2000 Critically Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs exclusively on the southern Mentawai Islands off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia (Pagai Selatan, Pagai Utara, and Sipora) (Roos et al. 2003).
Countries:
Native:
Indonesia (Sumatera)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: All populations of this species are urgently in need of protective measures (Whittaker 2006). The most recent estimates of density for it suggest 7-12 individuals/km2 in suitable habitat in the Pagai Islands (Paciulli 2004), giving a total of about 2,100 to 3,700 individuals (down from 15,000 in 1980) (Whittaker 2006). This species lives at much higher densities in logged forest than in unlogged forest, and their highest density is in forest logged 20 years ago (Whittaker 2006).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in both primary and disturbed areas (Whitten and Whitten 1982; Fuentes 1996/1997), preferring primary riverine coastal swamp forest (Wilson and Wilson 1976). It is primarily frugivorous (Whitten and Whitten 1982).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened mainly by hunting and commercial logging (Whittaker 2006), as well as by conversion to oil palm plantations and forest clearing and product extraction by local people (Whittaker 2006). Only 10-15% of the original forest cover remains on Sipora (Fuentes 1996/1997). Recently, hunting pressure has increased because of improved access to remote areas due to logging roads and tracks, as well as the replacement of bows and arrows with .177 caliber air rifles (anything larger is illegal in Indonesia) (Whittaker 2006). Also, local rituals and taboos that formerly regulated hunting have been replaced by Christianity (Whittaker 2006). The pet trade is also a threat to this species (Whittaker 2006). Though this species is not a preferred food item, it is still hunted and poisoned as it is considered a crop pest (Whittaker 2006). While habitat disturbance appears to positively affect population densities, it is found in lower densities near human settlements (Whittaker 2006).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species does not occur in any protected areas. Whittaker (2006) suggests the following conservation actions: protection of areas in the Pagai Islands by cooperating with a logging corporation that has practiced sustainable logging technique there since 1971; conservation education, especially regarding hunting; and the development of alternative economic models for the local people, to reduce the likelihood of selling off their lands to logging companies.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.

Citation: Whittaker, D. & Mittermeier, R.A. 2008. Macaca pagensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.
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