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Macaca leonina

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Macaca leonina
Species Authority: (Blyth, 1863)
Common Name(s):
English Northern Pig-tailed Macaque, Northern Pigtail Macaque
Synonym(s):
Macaca adusta Miller, 1906
Macaca andamanensis (Bartlett, 1869)
Macaca blythii Pocock, 1931
Macaca coininus (Kloss, 1903)
Macaca indochinensis Kloss, 1919
Macaca insulana Miller, 1906
Taxonomic Notes: Until recently this species was classified as a subspecies of M. nemestrina. There is some hybridization with M. nemestrina in a small area of southern peninsular Thailand, and on the islands of Phuket and Yao Yai (Groves 2001).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Boonratana, R., Das, J., Yongcheng, L., Htun, S. & Timmins, R.J
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable as the population is very likely to be declining at over 30% over three generations (30-36 years) across its entire distribution range due to several threats, and this decline is predicted to continue at the same rate or higher in the next three generations.
History:
2000 Vulnerable

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in eastern Bangladesh, Cambodia, southern China (southwestern Yunnan), northeastern India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura), Lao PDR, Myanmar (including the Mergui Archipelago), Thailand (from about 8°N and including adjacent islands), and central and southern Viet Nam. There might be a gap in the distribution in central and northeastern Myanmar between about 20 and 25°N, where it has not been recorded except on the coast at Arakan. In India found north to the Brahmaputra River (Groves 2001).
Records from Xizang (China) are probably misidentified rhesus macaques (MacKinnon in press). It has recently been recorded from Namdapha National Park in northeastern India (Chetry et al. 2003).

The precise taxonomic boundary between M. leonina and M. nemestrina is not well defined. There are populations of the two taxa found on either side of the distribution limits in the Isthmus of Kra, but many of these populations are the result of release by humans. The two species hybridize in a small area of southern peninsular Thailand, as well as on the islands of Phuket and Yao Yai (Groves 2001).

In Viet Nam, there are historical records from as far north as Nghe An province, but there is uncertainty as to whether the species was ever found north of this province. It is widely distributed throughout the lower elevations (below 500 m) of Lao PDR and Cambodia (R. Timmins pers. comm.). It is found over much Myanmar except in areas of human settlements.
Countries:
Native:
Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; India; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In China, the species’ population is estimated to be less than 1,000 individuals (Zhang et al. 2002). No information is available on the status of the population, but is thought to be declining rapidly. A very small population occurs in Bangladesh, which is isolated from the neighboring Indian locations. This habitat is degrading rapidly, thereby causing a continuing decline in mature individuals in the country (Molur et al. 2003). A group density of 0.07 individuals/km² was recorded in Namdapha National Park, India, by Chetry et al. (2003). There is no precise information available on population numbers in Myanmar or India, but populations are declining rapidly in India, and declining steadily in Myanmar. The animals are very patchily distributed in Myanmar.

The species is widely distributed and common in large forest blocks remaining in south and central Lao PDR, but the species is much scarcer in northern Lao PDR and Viet Nam (R. Timmins pers. comm.). It is widely distributed through the remaining forest areas of Cambodia. Populations are stable in Thailand.
Declines are due to different threats in different countries. There have been declines of more than 30% in the last 30-35 years in India, Bangladesh, China, Viet Nam and Myanmar. There are perceptible declines in Lao PDR and Cambodia, but the rates are close to or lower than 30%. In most of the countries, the species is predicted to decline at a rate higher than 30% over the next three generations.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This is a predominantly terrestrial animal, although it readily climbs and forages in the canopy. It is diurnal and frugivorous. It occupies tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen forest, tropical wet evergreen forest, tropical moist deciduous forest, coastal forest, swamp forest, low elevation pine forests (in Lao PDR and China) and montane forest, including degraded forests. In China the species occupies elevations between 50-2,000 m (Molur et al. 2003; Choudhury 2003). In Lao PDR and Viet Nam the species is associated with lowlands, usually below 500 m. Its generation time is 10-12 years (Molur et al. 2003). According to secondary information and recent records, populations in Myanmar live between 190-400 m (S. Htun pers. comm.).
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In Thailand, the males of this species are exploited for picking coconuts by the industry.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat disturbances that affect this species' survival include: selective logging; timber and firewood collection for making charcoal; building roads, dams, power lines; and deliberately setting fires. These threats lead to forest fragmentation and soil loss/erosion. Specifically, a decrease in habitat quality has been due to the loss of fruiting trees and sleeping sites through monocultures and plantations, selective felling, and a subsequent increase in the canopy gaps. These animals are hunted and traded for food, sport and traditional “medicine”, and accidental mortality due to trapping occurs. There is a local trade for bones, meat for food and the live animals as pets (Molur et al. 2003). Habitat loss and poaching are the major threats in India and Bangladesh. There has been a reduction in forest in Assam by over 10% in two years between 2001 and 2003 (Forest Survey of India 2003).

In Lao PDR, Viet Nam and Cambodia, hunting for food and trade is the primary threat, but as a predominantly lowland species habitat loss likely is also a major threat to the species. In Thailand, the males of this species are exploited for picking coconuts by the industry. Sometimes, a well-trained macaque is sold for 1,000USD. They are also in demand by resorts for show (R. Boonratana pers. comm.).

In Myanmar, hunting, trade, habitat loss in varying degrees, shifting cultivation in the north, logging in the east and south, and rubber plantations are the major threats (S. Htun pers. comm.).

In China, hunting, habitat loss and disturbance are major threats. There is a perceptible change in habitat quality that has an impact on the species (Huang et al. pers. comm.).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under CITES Appendix II. It is listed as Schedule III in the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974, Category I under the Chinese Wildlife Protection Act (1989), and as Schedule II under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (Chetry et al. 2003) amended up to 2002.

Northern pig-tailed macaques are known to occur in numerous protected areas, including Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary, Lawachara National Park, Rema-Kelanga Wildlife Sanctuary (Bangladesh); Daxueshan Nature Reserve, Nanguanhe Nature Reserve, Wuliangshan Nature Reserve, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve (China); Balpakhram National Park, Dampa Wildlife Sanctuary, Dibru-Saikhowa Wildlife Sanctuary, Fakim Wildlife Sanctuary, Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary, Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Gumti Wildlife Sanctuary, Intanki National Park, Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary, Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary, Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary, Murlen National Park, Namdapha National Park, Ngengpui Wildlife Sanctuary, Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, Padumoni-Bherjan-Borajan Wildlife Sanctuary, Phawngpui Blue Mountain National Park, Sepahijala Wildlife Sanctuary, Siju WS, Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary, Yangoupokpi-Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary (India); Pidaung Wildlife Sanctuary (Myanmar); Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary (Thailand); Cat Tien National Park, Pu Mat National Park (Viet Nam). May possibly occur in Nam Ha National Biodiversity Conservation Area (Lao PDR) (M. Richardson pers. comm.; Molur et al. 2003)

Citation: Boonratana, R., Das, J., Yongcheng, L., Htun, S. & Timmins, R.J 2008. Macaca leonina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 September 2014.
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