Juniperus barbadensis var. lucayana
|Scientific Name:||Juniperus barbadensis var. lucayana|
|Species Authority:||(Britton) R.P.Adams|
Juniperus lucayana Britton
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This variety was in the World List of Threatened Trees as Juniperus lucayana.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Gardner, M., Campbell, K.C.St.E. & Freid, H.|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.|
This taxon is widely distributed over the northwestern Caribbean in about two restricted sites in Cuba and on five islands in northern part of the Bahamas. Due to the nature of this distribution, particularly that in the Lucayan Archipelago of the Bahamas, it is not possible to estimate the area of occupancy. Throughout its distribution the population is clearly in decline mainly as a result of fire and urbanization. Out of a total population of less than 10,000, no subpopulation contains more than 1,000 individuals. On this basis it has been assessed as Vulnerable under C2a(i).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Juniperus barbadensis var. lucayana is endemic to the Caribbean where it occurs in the Bahamas, Cuba and Jamaica. |
In the Bahamas it occurs on the following islands: Great Abaco, Andros, Grand Bahama, Eleuthera and New Providence. Although Adams (1989) cites a figure of ca. 100 plants in the Bahamas the number is much greater and ranges from between 2,000-3,000 individuals. In Cuba it is currently recorded from Camagüey (Cayo Sabinal), Holguín (Sierra de Nipe) and Isla de la Juventud, Pinar del Río (Sabanalamar), (Areces-Mallea 1997, Adams 1989), however it is thought to only be extant in the latter two locations (Adams 1989). In Jamaica 15-20 trees grow in St Andrew Parish near to Clydesdale (Adams 1989, M. Gardner pers. obs.) where it has an EOO of 30 km2. It is now extinct on Haiti.
Native:Bahamas; Cuba; Jamaica
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Jamaica and Cuba the sub-populations are relatively restricted and occur in small stands with 5-30 individuals. In the Bahamas, the number is much higher and estimated to be between 2,000-3,000 individuals, most of which are confined to the islands of Andros, Abaco and Grand Bahama. In recent years there has been some reduction in some of these stands, for example the best stands at the west end of Grand Bahama have almost all disappeared due to the construction of apartments, a golf course and a marina.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a small tree up to 12 m in height occurring from near to sea level to 1,600 m in a range of forest types depending on the country. In Cuba it is found in ‘bosque aciculifolio’ forest which is characterised as having about 30% forest cover dominated by Pinus sp. with evergreen trees and associated shrubs and herbaceous plants but very few epiphytes and climbers (Berazaín 2005). In contrast, on the Isle of Pines, off the south coast of Cuba, it grows in forest swamps. In the Bahamas it is also found in coppices on limestone rocky slopes.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||In Jamaica it is often used in furniture making due to its attractive wood and its excellent insect-repellent properties.|
Exploitation for fuel wood and timber throughout its distribution have reduced the number of mature individuals. In Cuba fire is also a threat. In the Blue Mountains of Jamaica the illicit practice of selective felling of old-growth trees has been stopped in the Cinchona area since 1994 by the park authorities (Goodland and Healey 1996). Once gaps are created by felling the trees, invasive non-native species such as Pittosporum undulatum become established (Goodland and Healey 1996). The bark beetle, Phloeosinus neotropicus, which is endemic to Jamaica, is host specific on J. barbadensis var. lucayana (Garraway and Freeman 1981) and has the potential of further weakening debilitated stands. In the Bahamas there has been a reduction of some stands due to urbanization.
|Conservation Actions:||In the Bahamas it is afforded protection in a number of National Parks which are admninistered by the Bahamas National Trust. In Jamaica stands are within the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park|
|Citation:||Gardner, M., Campbell, K.C.St.E. & Freid, H. 2013. Juniperus barbadensis var. lucayana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T39146A2886399.Downloaded on 27 February 2017.|
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