|Scientific Name:||Carassius carassius|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
Wide distribution but gradual and continuing extirpation in many water bodies, especially in Danube drainage and central Europe, for unknown reasons. Suspected to be due to competition with introduced C. gibelio in non-optimal habitats.
|Range Description:||North, Baltic, White, Barents, Black and Caspian Sea basins; Aegean Sea basin only in Maritza drainage; eastward to Kolyma drainage (Siberia); westward to Rhine and eastern drainages of England. Absent from North Sea basin in Sweden and Norway. In Baltic basin north to about 66°N. Widely introduced to Italy, England and France but possibly often confused with C. gibelio.|
Native:Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Usually restricted to densely vegetated backwaters and oxbows of lowland rivers. Also in small well vegetated lakes and channels. Tolerates high summer temperatures and very low oxygen concentrations in summer and under ice cover. Able to survive in almost completely frozen water or almost-dry habitats by burying itself in mud. Spawns in dense submerged vegetation.
Lives about 10 years. Males reproduce for the first time at three years, females at four years in central and eastern Europe, at two years in southern Europe. Spawns in May-July at temperatures above 18°C. Individual females spawn with several males. Males follow ripe females, often with much splashing. Females spawn 3-5 times during a season. Eggs are sticky and are attached to water plants. Omnivorous; feeds all day but mostly at night on plankton, benthic invertebrates, plant material and detritus. Seems to be a weak competitor, usually absent from waters with rich ichthyofauna and abundant predatory species. Very abundant in the absence of other fish species. High-bodied, fast-growing individuals in habitats with predatory fish, more elongate in habitats without predatory fish.
|Major Threat(s):||Introduced C. gibelio.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Carassius carassius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 July 2014.|
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