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Mangifera collina 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Sapindales Anacardiaceae

Scientific Name: Mangifera collina
Species Authority: Kosterm.
Taxonomic Source(s): Kostermans, A.J.G.H. and Bompard, J.-M. 1993. The Mangoes. Academic Press Ltd., London.
Taxonomic Notes: Mangifera collina Kosterm. belongs to Taxon Group two of Mango M. indica L.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2ac; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2014-01-01
Assessor(s): Rhodes, L. & Maxted, N.
Reviewer(s): Fielder, H., Eiadthong , W. & Dillon, N.
Justification:
Mangifera collina is globally assessed as Endangered A2ac; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v). It has an extent of occurrence (EOO) of approximately 5,000 km2 and is severely fragmented with continuing declines in its EOO, area of occupancy (AOO), habitat extent and quality, the number of subpopulations and the number of mature individuals. In addition, W. Eiadthong (pers. comm. 2016) reports that it also meets criterion A2ac, having observed a reduction in population size of over 50% in the last three generations (90 years) and a decline in both its EOO and AOO.

Ecogeographic survey work to confirm population distribution and size is required and the establishment of active complementary in situ and ex situ conservation is recommended to protect this species in the long-term against threats such as deforestation. Ex situ conservation will need to consist of living collections in botanical gardens as the species is recalcitrant so cannot be dried and frozen for storage in gene banks (RGB Kew 2008).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Mangifera collina is restricted to the natural forests of Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Mae Hong Son provinces in the northwest of Thailand (Kostermans and Bombard 1993, WCMC 1998, W. Eiadthong Pers. Comm. 2016). It is restricted to altitudes between 600 m and 1,000 m asl (W. Eiadthong pers. comm. 2016). The species is not listed in the Flora of Thailand (Vol. 10, Part 3) (Chayamarit 2010).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Thailand
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:4999
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Lower elevation limit (metres):600
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:No direct evidence of population distribution, size or trend is available. However, population decline is inferred from continuing habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation of forests in and around Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Mae Hong Son provinces, northwest Thailand (W. Eiadthong pers. comm. 2016).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:UnknownPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:UnknownAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The Red List assessment of this species in 1998 states that this rare tree is found in montane, wet evergreen and deciduous forests (WCMC 1998). However, according to W. Eiadthong (pers. comm. 2016), this evergreen tree species is restricted to lower montane and seasonal, dry evergreen forest, growing to 15–25 m in height.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):30

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Mangifera collina belongs to Taxon Group two of cultivated Mango M. indica and so it has the potential for use as a gene donor for crop improvement (Kostermans and Bompard 1993).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Thailand, land area covered by forest decreased from a total of 61% to just 15% of the country's total land area between 1945 and 2008 (Association for Protection of the Environment 2014). Furthermore, in a survey of land cover change at a site in Chiang Mai, Giambelluca et al. (2002) found that increased land pressure from a growing population in the village studied and the surrounding region is resulting in the degradation and destruction of old growth forest through reduction of fallow periods and conversion of land for agriculture. This source cites Fox et al. (1995) who established a study area northwest of Chiang Mai and found that over a 38 year period (from 1954 to 1992) human population (and population density) and agricultural cover increased resulting in forest fragmentation and loss. This evidence demonstrates that forest habitats are in decline in Thailand, including Chiang Mai province. W. Eiadthong highlights the threats of increasing urbanization and the expansion of agriculture within the species' native range in the provinces of Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Mae Hong Son in northwest Thailand (W. Eiadthong pers. comm. 2016).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No evidence of ex situ conservation was found for this species. However, the species is present within the Doi Suthep-Pui national park, Chiang Mai province (W. Eiadthong pers. comm. 2016). A detailed ecogeographic survey to confirm population distribution, size, trends and habitat trends is urgently required along with a gap analysis to inform conservation planning.

Citation: Rhodes, L. & Maxted, N. 2016. Mangifera collina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T37507A61527145. . Downloaded on 09 December 2016.
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