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Candidula setubalensis

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA MOLLUSCA GASTROPODA STYLOMMATOPHORA HYGROMIIDAE

Scientific Name: Candidula setubalensis
Species Authority: Pfeiffer, 1850
Taxonomic Notes: Gittenberger (1985) after anatomical examination of two specimens of Xeroplexa setubalensis (type species of Xeroplexa, Monterosato1892) from the locus typicus noted that it corresponded to Candidula (Kobelt 1871), so Xeroplexa must be considered a junior synonymn of Candidula.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-17
Assessor(s): Martínez-Ortí, A.
Reviewer(s): Neubert, E., Nichols, C. & Cuttelod, A.
Justification:
This is a Portuguese endemic restricted to the Serra da Arrabida. It has a restricted extent of occurrence (EOO = 100 km2) and area of occupancy (AOO = 10 km2), and one location. The main threats to this species are fires, road construction and tourism, which cause a decline in the quality and extent of its habitat. Significant parts of the area have been destroyed by a fire in 2004, and it is to assume that the population of this species has been heavily affected. Therefore it is assessed as Endangered (EN) B1ab(iii) + 2ab(iii). More research on the population size, the distribution and the effects of human disturbances and the recent fire event is needed.
History:
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Indeterminate (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to Portugal where it is only known from the Serra da Arrabida near Setúbal, on the right bank of the Sado river estuary.
Countries:
Native:
Portugal (Portugal (mainland))
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There are no population studies of this species but because of the serious fire in the Serra da Arrabida park in 2004, the population is thought to be severely affected.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found on Sclerophyllous shrubs higher than 3 m and in Quercus faginea (Oak), Olea europaea (Olive), Ceratonia siliqua (Carob), Acer monspessulanum  (Maple) and Pinus halepensis (Pine) forests, as well as rocky outcrops.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not utilized.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats to this species are fire and disturbance from human activities. The impacts of these threats are compounded by the limited number of localities, the fragility of the habitat, and the limited dispersion of this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: All the populations are included in the protected area the Serra da Arrabida, however there is still a need for a conservation plan. This area is a Biogenetic Reserve established by the Council of Europe. It is classified as a Site of Special Interest for Nature Conservation. New sampling efforts are needed to determine the population size as well as measure the effects of human disturbances on the populations.

Citation: Martínez-Ortí, A. 2013. Candidula setubalensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 November 2014.
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