Calamaria pfefferi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Calamariidae

Scientific Name: Calamaria pfefferi Stejneger, 1901
Common Name(s):
English Pfeffer's Reed Snake

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-12-03
Assessor(s): Kidera, N. & Ota, H.
Reviewer(s): Bowles, P.
Listed as Endangered because its area of occupancy is estimated to be less than 50 km2  based on the extent of suitable habitat, its extent of occurrence is below 400 km2, it occurs as a severely fragmented population, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of its forest habitat on the two Islands (Miyakojima and Irabujima), and in the number of mature individuals inferred from a decline in the frequency of records.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:It occurs in Miyakojima and Irabujima Islands of the Miyako Group, southern Ryukyus, Japan. The area of occupancy (AOO) is estimated to be smaller than 50 km2 (Ota 2014).
Countries occurrence:
Japan (Nansei-shoto)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:49.99Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:373.1
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species was relatively common from at least the 1980s to the middle of the 1990s. It appears to have subsequently undergone a rapid decline based on the frequency of records although there are no details on the species' population size, and it is now rare throughout its range (Ota 2014). The population is considered to be severely fragmented as a result of habitat fragmentation, as this is a desiccation-prone, shade-reliant species that will not be able to disperse between habitat patches.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Calamaria pfefferi inhabits natural forests of broadleaf evergreens, secondary forests, shrub forests and grasslands or limestone scree with humid substrates all year round. This species is vulnerable to dryness and heat as well as over-humidification due to its thin skin. Moderately humid humus soils along with plants or rocks providing shade are an essential microhabitat feature for this species' persistence. There is an observation that this species consumed an earthworm (Ota 2014).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is no known use of or trade in this species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat is habitat reduction caused by deforestation, development of grasslands and construction of houses and farmlands which leads to arid land that is not suitable for this species. In addition, habitat fragmentation caused by road construction for paved roads and roadside gutters and an increase of introduced predators such as Japanese weasels and Indian peacocks are also considered to be a threat (Ota 2014).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Collection of this species in Miyakojima and Irabujima Islands is forbidden under a local regulation in Miyakojima city (Ota 2014).

Citation: Kidera, N. & Ota, H. 2017. Calamaria pfefferi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T3463A96877331. . Downloaded on 21 September 2018.
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