|Scientific Name:||Agathis macrophylla|
|Species Authority:||(Lindl.) Mast.|
Agathis vitiensis (Seem.) Benth. & Hook.f.
Dammara macrophylla Lindl.
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This includes Agathis vitiensis (Seem.) Benth. & Hook.f. which was incorrectly listed in the first edition of the World Checklist & Bibliography of Conifers as a good species.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Keppel, G.|
Agathis macrophylla meets the B2 criterion for Endangered as its area of occupancy (AOO) is certainly less than 500 km² and there is continuing decline due to logging and deforestation in at least some parts of its range. This situation is exacerbated by the near total lack of protected areas relevant to the species; only one fairly substantial reserve exists.
Previously, this species was listed as Near Threatened. However, individual island populations may well be severely threatened, e.g. that on Utupua in the Santa Cruz Group. Doyle (in Farjon and Page, 1999) assessed the species separately for each of the island groups as follows: Fiji: VU - Vulnerable, IUCN 1994-criteria A2d (>20% reduction within next three generations based on current exploitation levels) and B2e (continuing decline in the number of mature individuals). Santa Cruz Islands: NE - not evaluated. Vanuatu: VU - Vulnerable, IUCN 1994-criteria A2d and B2e. Agathis macrophylla is now quite rare outside plantations in the Santa Cruz Group, though an unlogged subpopulation apparently survives on the upper Lawrence River on Vanikoro.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||A southwest Pacific species recorded from Fiji (Kadavu Island, Viti Levu, Vanua Levu), the Solomon Islands (Santa Cruz Group - Utupua Island, Vanikoro Island), and Vanuatu (Anatom Island [Aneityum], Erromango Island, and Tanna Island). The extent of occurrence is in excess of 20,000 km2. The AOO is estimated to be 189 km2.|
Native:Fiji; Solomon Islands (Santa Cruz Is.); Vanuatu
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||189|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||75|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||900|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The size of the global population is unknown. This species is present in four separate locations (where Fiji is one location as calculated in the ArcView Red List mapping tool used at RBG Kew) on different island archipelago's. A recent decline in numbers of mature trees, and even in number of localities within locations, has been observed for most locations, and is continuing in some areas.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Agathis macrophylla is an emergent tree in lowland to low montane tropical rainforest; usually growing in soils derived from volcanic rocks like basalt. Its altitudinal range is recorded from herbarium collections as being between 75 and 900 m a.s.l. In Fiji on the main islands it is most common between 600 and 900 m a.s.l. A. macrophylla appears to behave as a normal component of rainforests dominated by angiosperms. This means that it is capable of small-gap regeneration like other large forest trees.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||80|
|Use and Trade:||The wood of this species is white or sometimes with a reddish hue and known in Fiji as Dakua wood and in the Santa Cruz Group as Vanikoro kauri. It is very valuable and used for construction, for flooring in houses, for masts, booms and spars in sailing boats, for carpentry and for furniture making. Resin is tapped from trees, but also dug from the ground (subfossil resin) and used in making varnishes, pottery glazing, and dying cloth black with the smoke from burning it. Fijian Kauri Pine has been planted as a forestry tree in the Solomon Islands (Santa Cruz Group) and elsewhere in the southwestern Pacific in an attempt to obtain timber more sustainably from a truly renewable resource.|
The major threat to this species is logging in natural forests, which is unsustainable but ongoing in some parts of its range. Deforestation has followed much logging in the past, reducing the area of occupancy of the species, but this process, while not ceased, is slowing now.
|Conservation Actions:||The only protected area specifically designated for Agathis macrophylla is the Erromango Kauri Reserve in Vanuatu, on the island of that name. It protects 3,205 ha of rainforest with good stands of emergent Fijian Kauri Pines. On Fiji, there are a few very small protected areas relevant to this species but almost all remaining stands of these trees are in forest without official protected status. No protected areas exist in the Santa Cruz Group on Utupua and Vanikoro Islands|
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Agathis macrophylla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T34321A2852140. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T34321A2852140.en . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.|
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