|Scientific Name:||Butis butis (Hamilton, 1822)|
Cheilodipterus butis Hamilton, 1822
Eleotris butis (Hamilton, 1822)
Elestris butis (Hamilton, 1822)
This species is often confused with Butis amboinensis.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Larson, H. & Sparks, J.S.|
|Contributor(s):||Smith, J., Wilson, P., Lintott, P., Lewis, S., Lutz, M.L., Milligan, H.T., De Silva, R., Batchelor, A., Kemp, K., Jopling, B., Sears, J., Livingston, F., Collen, B., Carpenter, K.E., Elfes, C., Polidoro, B. & Richman, N.|
The species has been assessed as Least Concern as it is usually common and is found throughout a large range. There are potential localised threats throughout its range (e.g. for the aquarium trade), however these are not thought to be detrimental to the global population. Further research into population and harvest yields are recommended.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
This species has a wide geographic range from east Africa, Seychelles, western Mascarenes, including Madagascar and the Comoros in the Indian Ocean (Keith et al. 2006), across to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh (Rahman 1989), north to the South China Sea, south through the Indo-West Pacific region to Australia and New Caledonia (Allen et al. 2002) and as far east as Fiji (Ryan 1981).
Native:Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia); Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan); Fiji; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Macao; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island), Rodrigues); Mozambique; Myanmar; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Yemen (Socotra)
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no specific population information available for this species, however, it is usually abundant and common throughout its range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This tropical species is found in coastal marine to brackish habitats, mangroves and in the lower reaches of freshwater streams, usually on mud bottoms (Allen et al. 2002). It is usually found in lagoons, estuaries, and mangrove swamps, particularly where there is vegetation. Occasionally this species ascends rivers. In Viet Nam this species lives in downstream rivers, estuaries and lagoons of Gulf of Tonkin. It is an ambush hunter, feeding mainly on small fishes and crustaceans and is famous for using sticks and floating leaves as stalking-horses.|
|Use and Trade:||This species is harvested for the international aquarium trade (Monks 2006) although the extent of this trade is not known. It is known as Crazy Fish in the USA aquarium trade. It does appear that there is limited market demand and any trade is unlikely to be a major threat. In Cambodia this species is marketed fresh (Rainboth 1996).|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats currently known. However, any threats to coastal rivers and estuaries, such as destruction of mangroves or coastal developments, could affect this species. Although it is found in the aquarium trade, demand appears to be low and it is unlikely that this is a major threat to the species.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species, although it does occur within a number of marine protected areas. Further research on local subpopulations and monitoring of harvest levels is recommended.|
|Citation:||Larson, H. & Sparks, J.S. 2017. Butis butis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T3381A58294204.Downloaded on 26 September 2018.|
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