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Juniperus procera

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES CUPRESSACEAE

Scientific Name: Juniperus procera
Species Authority: Hochst. ex Endl.
Common Name(s):
English African Pencil Cedar, African Juniper, East African Cedar

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-07-06
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Adams, R
Justification:
This widespread conifer is still common or abundant in many areas of its extensive range and is therefore assessed as Least Concern at the global level. There are concerns about localized declines within its range, and those need to be monitored as combined they could amount to a more significant overall population reduction and may warrant a change to a more threatened category in the future.
History:
1997 Not Threatened (Walter and Gillett 1998)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Recorded from NE, E and S Tropical Africa: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Somalia, Sudan (near Red Sea), Tanzania, Uganda, NE Zimbabwe; Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia (Asir Range), Yemen. Widespread from Arabia to Zimbabwe. Existing populations in the Arabian Peninsula represent a small fragment of the woodlands that once existed. Outlying populations in Zimbabwe, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Malawi are extremely small and threatened.
Countries:
Native:
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; Yemen (North Yemen); Zimbabwe
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Continuing exploitation and deforestation make it likely that the global population is in decline.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species forms evergreen Afromontane forest (also locally invading into savanna where low fire frequencies permit), either with pure stands of Juniperus procera, or mixed coniferous, with Afrocarpus gracilior, Podocarpus milanjianus, or conifer-mixed angiosperm, with Olea chrysophylla, O. hochstetterii, Faurea saligna, Dombeya mastersii, Olinia rochetiana, Ilex mitis, Vepris nobilis and numerous smaller trees and shrubs, e.g. Agarista salicifolia, Catha edulis, Buddleja spp., Cadia purpurea, Cussonia spicata, Dodonaea sp., Erica arborea, Euclea schimperi, Faurea sp., Maytenus spp., Nuxia congesta, and Olea spp. Pure stands are usually evidence of establishment after forest disturbance in the past. Juniperus procera occurs on mountain slopes, summits, on escarpments and outcrops and in forested ravines in sand, loam or clay over various rock types, e.g. basalt, volcanic ash and cinders, granite, limestone, or metamorphic rock. The altitudinal range is 1,370-3,000 m a.s.l. The climate is tropical montane, with a prolonged dry season.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The larger trees of this species are prized for timber, having good, workable and decay-resistant wood. It is used for fence posts and shingles on roofs, for construction, furniture, cabinet making, and the manufacture of pencils. It is grown in plantations in Africa and India, but only on a limited scale; in horticulture it is mostly confined to public parks in Ethiopia and Kenya, including cemeteries. Outside Africa it is only planted in a few botanic gardens; under glass in temperate climate regions or outside in warmer countries.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has been logged in many areas, but it is still too common to be threatened with extinction. Depletion of old growth forest groves of this species threatens to occur in Kenya and Ethiopia and from an ecological point of view there is certainly a conservation issue regarding the only juniper in sub-Saharan Africa.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in many national parks and other protected areas throughout its wide range.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Juniperus procera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 November 2014.
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