|Scientific Name:||Betula raddeana Trautv.|
Betula aischatiae Husseinov
Betula maarensis V. N. Vassil. & Husseinov
Betula victoris Husseinov
|Taxonomic Notes:||REF.: G. M. Abdurakhmanov (ed.) 1 8. Red Data Book of the Republic of Dagestan. Rare and threatened animal and plant species. Makhachkala. 338 p. (in Russian) [Г. М. Абдурахманов (отв. ред. и сост.) 1 8. Красная книга Республики Дагестан. Редкие и находящиеся по угрозой исчезновения виды животных и растений. Махачкала. 338 с.]
N. Ketskhoveli, A. Kharadze and R. Gagnidze (eds.) Flora of Georgia. 1 75. 2nd ed. Tbilisi. Vol. III. 276 p. (in Georgian)
Flora of Azerbaijan. 1 52. Baku: Publishing House of Acad. Sci. Azer. SSR. Vol. III. P. 0. [Флора Азербайджана. 1 52. Баку: Изд. АН Азерб. ССР. T. III. C. 0.]
V. D. Golovanov et al. (ed.) 1 88. Red Data Book of RSFSR. Plants. Moscow. 5 0 p. (in Russian) [Голованов, В. Д. и др. (ред.) 1 88. Красная книга РСФСР. Растения. М. 5 0 с.]
A. L. Komzha, A. D. Lipkovich and K. P. Popov (eds.) 1 . Red Data Book of the Republic Severnaya Ossetia-Alania. Rare and threatened plant and animal species. Vladikavkaz. 248 p. (In Russian) [А. Л. Комжа, А. Д. Липкович, К. П. Попов (Отв. ред.) 1 . Красная книга республики Северная Оссетия-Алания. Редкие и нахожящиеся под угрозой исчезновения виды растений и животных. Владикавказ. 248 c.]
Litvinskaya, S. A. and Murtazaliev, R. A. 2008. Caucasian Elements in the Flora of the Russian Caucasus: Geography, Sozology, Ecology. Krasnodar. 410 p. (in Russian) [Литвинская, С.А., Муртазалиев, Р.А. 2008. Кавказский элемент во флоре Российского Кавказа: география, созология, экология. Краснодар. 410 с.]
Menitsky, U. L.1 1. Project "Conspectus of the Flora of the Caucasus". A Map of the Floristic Regions (in Russian). Botanicheskiy zhurnal 76(11): 1513-1521. [Меницкий, Ю. Л. 1 1. Проект "Конспект флоры Кавказа". Карта районов флоры. Бот. журн. 76(11): 1513-1521.]
Red Data Book of the Republic of Chechnya. Rare and threatened species of plants and animals. 2007. Groznyi. 432 p. (in Russian) [Красная книга Чеченской Республики. Редкие и находящиеся под угрозой виды растений и животных. 2007. Грозный. 432 с.]
Salpagarov, D. S. 1 88. Red Data Book of Karachaevo-Cherkessia. Rare and threatened species of fauna and flora. Stavropol. 158 p. (in Russian) [Салпагаров, Д. С. 1 88. Красная книга Карачаево-Черкессии. Редкие и исчезающие виды фауны и флоры. Ставрополь. 158 с.]
The Plant List (2010). Version 1. Published on the Internet; http://www.theplantlist.org/ (accessed 14th July, 2011).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Hadjiev, V., Shetekauri, S. & Litvinskaya, S.|
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution on the eastern Greater Caucasus, presumed large population, and because the species is currently thought to be stable. However, population monitoring is needed, taking into account forest clear-cutting and the negative effects of traditional land use (including grazing and cattle camping in subalpine forests), and the effects of the global climate change on Radde's birch (its probable ascent to higher altitudes) needs to be studied.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Caucasus, occurring in Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia. In Azerbaijan it occurs in Kuba (Susay village and the gorge of River Kuruchay) and Sheki (Mt. Gey-Tapa). In Georgia it occurs in Shiga Kartli (Ermani, Edisi), Mtiuleti (Gudauri gorge, Gveleti, Devdoraki) and Tush-Pshav-Khevsureti (Diklos Khorkhi, Khone, Khakhabo, Mutso, Ardoti, Akhieli). In the Central Caucasus region of Russia it occurs in Malkinskiy (at the sources of River Bashilyauza, in the basin of River Chegem, in the basins of the Rivers Baksan and Cherek, Urukh in the Bartuy gorge in Kabardino-Balkaria) and Verkhne-Terskiy (Ardon, Tsey gorge, Mt. Adaukhokh in Severnaya Osetia) floristic regions, and in the East Caucasus region of Russia it occurs in Assa-Argunskiy (Chechnya) and Verkhne-Sulakskiy floristic regions(Rivers Karakoysu and Akusha, settlements Gunib, Akhsu in Dagestan).|
Native:Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The overall population of this species is assumed to be large, but scattered. Many subpopulations of this species are reported to exist, but some populations are scattered and many are thought to contain a low number of individuals. Populations in Georgia have been described as fragmented. B. raddeana is described by some as a rare species. Little is known about the overall population status of this species.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This is a subalpine forest species, scattered throughout pine, mixed or beech forests and forms a treeline together with Mountain Ash and Sallow. This species is found mostly on slopes, often on limestone, from the middle montane through to subalpine zones.|
|Use and Trade:||Potentially national trade|
|Major Threat(s):||Traditional land use, including grazing and cattle camping in subalpine forests, is a threat. Global climate change is predicted to result in the probable ascent of Radde's birch to higher altitudes, and this needs to be studied. The range this species occupies is declining. Across the Caucasus poor forest management and unsustainable land use has led to habitat destruction and over-exploitation which threatens forest ecosystems. The subalpine belt has been one of the most heavily impacted habitats. The major threats to subalpine forests are illegal and legal logging, unregulated forest clear cutting, fuel wood harvesting and overgrazing from livestock. Forest ecosystems in Georgia have also become fragmented due to encroachment of agricultural land and commercial forestry due to a lack of forest management in the past. Another internal threat may be poor recruitment under closed sward.|
It is in the Red List of Georgia (2006) with an IUCN Red List regional assessment of Vulnerable, the Red Data Books of the North Caucasus sub-country administrative units of Severnaya Osetia-Alania (1999), Dagestan (1998), Karachaevo-Cherkessia (1988) and Chechnya (2007) as well as the Russian Federation (1988) as a rare status 3 species. It is protected in the Kabardino-Balkarskiy and Severo-Osetinskiy State Reserves, Russian Federation.
Population monitoring, including research on the effects of global climate change, and sustainable management of forestry in the range of this species is required.
|Citation:||Hadjiev, V., Shetekauri, S. & Litvinskaya, S. 2014. Betula raddeana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T30748A2795982.Downloaded on 19 January 2018.|
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