|Scientific Name:||Juniperus brevifolia|
|Species Authority:||(Seub.) Antoine|
Juniperus oxycedrus var. brevifolia Seub.
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Bilz, M. & Farjon, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Elias, R, Herrington, S & Gardner, M.|
The area of occupancy (AOO) has been calculated to be 513 km2 which falls well within the 2,000 km2 threshold for Vulnerable under criterion B (B2ab(ii,iii,v)). The population is severely fragmented with a continuing decline in both its area of occupancy and quality of its habitat. In 1998 this species was assessed as EN B1+2c (Farjon 1998). More detailed field studies throughout the Azores undertaken since 1998 indicate that it is more widespread than previously thought.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is found on all the islands of the Azores with the exception of Graciosa (Dias 1996, Farjon et al. 1998, Silva et al. 2005). The area of occupancy (AOO) = 513 km2. The AOO was estimated on the presence within 1 km2 grid cells overlaid on a 1;25000 scale map. This mapping scale is more appropriate in the context of the size of the individual islands in the Azores, compared to the standard 4 km² grid recommended in the IUCN guidelines. The AOO is distributed throughout the islands as follows (the percentage given is the AOO relative to the total area of each island): |
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Sizeable trees are now rare and the species is represented largely by shrub-sized individuals.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Juniperus brevifolia can be found in a variety of different habitats; coastal scrubland with Myrica faya and Erica azorica; mountain scrubland with Calluna vulgaris; pioneer scrubland on lava flows with Erica azorica, Calluna vulgaris and Vaccinium cylindraceum; Juniperus-Laurus azorica forest; Juniperus-Ilex azorica forest; as pure Juniperus woods and Juniperus-Sphagnum woods or Juniperus forested peat bogs.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||Historically Juniperus brevifolia has been used in forestry, building of furniture, infrastructure and ships. The Azores were a very important port of call for Portuguese sailing ships coming from or to Brazil, Africa and India in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. It is now too rare to be exploited.|
|Major Threat(s):||Current threats stem from the expansion of agricultural land and impact of livestock as well as forestry, especially the establishment of Cryptomeria japonica and Eucalyptus globulus plantations. These activities have caused a great decline of the subpopulations on Pico, Terceira, São Jorge and Flores especially in mountainous areas above 500 m. Perhaps the current greatest threat to Juniperus brevifolia is competition from alien species, especially Pittosporum undulatum at lower altitudes, Hedychium gardnerianum at higher altitudes and, in São Miguel, Clethra arborea. Over the past ten years there has been a decline of less than 10 % of the overall population but the situation varies from island to island.|
Juniperus brevifolia is internationally protected under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) (Elias and Silva 2008).
Juniperus brevifolia has protection in the following designated areas:
|Errata reason:||An errata assessment was produced to cite references that were attached but not previously cited, and to add EU28 assessment (= global assessment).|
|Citation:||Thomas, P. 2011. Juniperus brevifolia. (errata version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T30326A101027981.Downloaded on 27 March 2017.|
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