Mustela erminea 

Scope: Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Mustelidae

Scientific Name: Mustela erminea Linnaeus, 1758
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Stoat, Ermine, Short-tailed Weasel
French Hermine
Spanish Armiño

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2007
Date Assessed: 2006-05-21
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Margarida Fernandes, Tiit Maran, Alexei Tikhonov, Jim Conroy, Paulo Cavallini, Andreas Kranz, Juan Hererreo, Michael Stubbe, Giorgos Giannatos
Reviewer(s): Craig Hilton-Taylor and Helen Temple
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 25 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

This is a widespread and abundant species with no significant major threats, hence it is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The stoat has a very large circumboreal range, inhabiting central and northern Eurasia, northern North America and north-eastern Greenland. It has been introduced to New Zealand. In Europe, it is present as far south as 41ºN in Portugal (Santos Reis 1983), and is found on most islands with the exception of Iceland, Svalbard, and some small North Atlantic islands; it does not occur on Mediterranean islands. In Japan, it is present in central mountains (northern and central Japan Alps) to northern part of Honshu (primarily above 1,200 m) and Hokkaido (Abe et al. 2005). Its vertical range is from sea level to 3,000 m (Pulliainen 1999).
Countries occurrence:
Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):3000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The density and structure of populations of this species are unstable, due to short life spans and high reproductive capacity; populations are greatly influenced by fluctuations in prey supply (especially small mammals) (King 1983, Pulliainen 1999). Population fluctuations of stoats and their prey tend to increase in magnitude at more northerly latitudes (Pulliainen 1999), although fluctuations have also been recorded in Spain (Blanco 1998, Palomo and Gisbert 2002). In France, it was declining, but now has stabilized as a result of full protection (EMA Workshop 2006). In Spain it has been speculated that the population may be declining as a results of declines in the southern water vole Arvicola sapidus (Palomo and Gisbert 2002), but the population trend has not been quantified in Spain or Portugal (Palomo and Gisbert 2002, Cabral et al. 2005). Despite population fluctuations, it is a widespread and abundant species.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Stoats occupy a wide range of habitats. They are often found in successional or forest-edge habitats, in scrub, alpine meadows, marshes, riparian woodlands, hedgerows, and riverbanks that have high densities of small mammals, especially Microtus and Arvicola species (King 1983). Pulliainen (1999) states that coniferous and mixed woodlands are preferred, but that many other habitats are used including tundra and the summits of fells and mountains. Dense forests and deserts are avoided (King 1983). This species is a specialist predator of small mammals, but will occasionally feed on fruit, earthworms, insects, eggs, and birds (King 1983). Its local distribution is typically related to that of small rodents and lagomorphs (King 1983, Pulliainen 1999). Estimates for home range size range from 4 to 200 hectares for males, most often falling between 10 to 40 hectares (King 1983).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the Iberian Peninsula the species is dependent on two Arvicola species, and these are declining, so loss of prey base may be a threat (Palomo and Gisbert 2002). Habitat loss (e.g. as a result of urbanization: Pulliainen 1999) is also a problem in parts of the range. The species is commonly hunted in Russia, where there is also a limited fur trade (R. McDonald pers. comm. 2006). In western and central Europe, the stoat was frequently hunted for its white winter fur up until at least the 1930s (with c.30,000 pelts sold in Finland alone during that decade) (Pulliainen 1999). Availability of prey is the principal factor controlling population density (King 1983, Pulliainen 1999), but disease, parasites and other pressures can also contribute.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention. It occurs in many protected areas across its range. Monitoring of exploitation is required by the Bern Convention (R. McDonald pers. comm. 2006). The species is protected under national legislation in some range states (e.g. Spain), although this is not necessarily enforced (Palomo and Gisbert 2002). However, in many parts of its global range the species is not protected and trapping is quite legal (R. McDonald pers. comm. 2006).

Citation: Margarida Fernandes, Tiit Maran, Alexei Tikhonov, Jim Conroy, Paulo Cavallini, Andreas Kranz, Juan Hererreo, Michael Stubbe, Giorgos Giannatos. 2007. Mustela erminea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T29674A9524193. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
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