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Pseudomulleria dalyi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA MOLLUSCA BIVALVIA UNIONOIDA ETHERIIDAE

Scientific Name: Pseudomulleria dalyi
Species Authority: (Smith, 1898)
Synonym(s):
Acostaea dalyi (Smith, 1898)
Mulleria dalyi Smith, 1898
Taxonomic Notes: This species is described as Mulleria dalyi. Subba Rao (1989) refers to this as Acostaea (Pseudomulleria) dalyii.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-09-10
Assessor(s): Madhyastha, A. & Bogan, A.E.
Reviewer(s): Dey, A., Mavinkurve, R.G., Madhyastha, N.A., Seddon, M.B., Brooks, E., Böhm, M. & Collen, B.
Contributor(s): Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., McGuinness, S., De Silva, R., Milligan, H.T., Kasthala, G., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K. & Collins, A.
Justification:
Pseudomulleria dalyi has been assessed as Endangered. It is only found in five populations in two locations and has an estimated extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km² and an area of occupancy of less than 500 km². The construction of a dam on Thunga and Bhadra River and water pollution in the Tunga River are causing major habitat degradation. This species inhabits very specialized environments and is thought to be sensitive to pollution. Conservation measures should be carried out to protect the species and its habitat; there is a need for catchment management to ensure that dam management and pollution do not extirpate the remaining populations and more research is needed on the species' basic ecology, including the need to maintain a host species.
History:
2000 Endangered
2000 Endangered

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the Western Ghats, India. It has been reported from five sub-populations (at two localities) in the Bhadra and Tunga River systems in Karnataka, India (Madhyastha 2001). It has an estimated area of occupancy (AOO) of 400 km² and an estimated extent of occurrence of less than 5,000 km². A single specimen has been collected from Koyna Valley, Maharashtra, however its presence there is doubtful.
Countries:
Native:
India (Karnataka)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: About 500 individuals of this species were found at the type locality in the Bhadra River (Madhyastha 2001). In the Tunga River, only about 100 individuals of this species seem to exist (Madhyastha 2001) in each of the localities. The population in Tunga River was extirpated because of the increase in the height of the Tunga Dam. On average the population density is estimated at 5-10 per m² (Madhyastha pers. comm.).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits highly specialized environments in both the Bhadra and Tunga River (Madhyastha 2001, Mavinkurve et al. 2004). Individuals are generally firmly cemented to rocks and occur in clusters of five to ten (Madhyastha 2001). This species is thought to be sensitive to water pollution (Mavinkurve et al. 2004).
Systems: Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The construction of a dam and water pollution are the major threats to this species and its habitat. A project called the Upper Bhadra Project, which will include the construction of a dam on the Bhadra River, is set to go ahead (Madhyastha 2001). The flooding of this area will most likely be fatal for the subpopulation at this location. Anthropogenic (washing and bathing) and agricultural pollution and fishing using dynamite and chemicals are major threats to the subpopulation in the Tunga River (Madhyastha 2001), by reducing fish numbers, which in turn interrupts this species' life cycle. Recent increase in the height of Tunga Dam near Shimoga has submerged the newly identified sites and population of this species. Extensive extraction of the water for agriculture in some areas results in exposure, which is fatal to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Conservation measures should be carried out to protect the species and its habitat; there is a need for catchment management to ensure that dam management and pollution do not extirpate the remaining populations and more research is needed on the species' basic ecology, taxonomy, spawning time, including the need to maintain a host species.

Citation: Madhyastha, A. & Bogan, A.E. 2011. Pseudomulleria dalyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 September 2014.
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