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Bombina bombina 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Bombinatoridae

Scientific Name: Bombina bombina
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1761)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Fire-bellied Toad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2008-12-14
Assessor(s): Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avisi, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, Uğur Kaya
Reviewer(s): Cox, N. and Temple, H.J. (Global Amphibian Assessment)
Justification:
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Least Concern (LC)
1996 Lower Risk/conservation dependent (LR/cd)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in central and eastern Europe ranging from Denmark, southern Sweden and northern Germany eastwards to the Ural Mountains of Russia, southwards to the Danube floodplain, Turkey (Thrace and the vicinity of Adapazari B. b. arifiyensis in north-western Anatolia), and the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. It has been introduced to the United Kingdom (one colony in Surrey). It is a lowland species that occurs from sea level up to a maximum of 730m asl (in western Bohemia).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Turkey; Ukraine
Reintroduced:
Sweden
Introduced:
United Kingdom
Upper elevation limit (metres): 730
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species remains fairly abundant over much of its range (for example it is extremely common to the north and west of the Danube floodplain where it has benefited from increased irrigation), although many northern populations have declined (e.g., in Poland and Germany). The populations of this species in both Denmark and Sweden are low. Individual populations of this species can show significant fluctuations in numbers. There are no recent records from Greece, but its range in this country has not been surveyed for many years. The species is common in parts of European Russia, Ukraine and Moldavia, and while it is unlikely to be declining on this territory in general, many local populations are declining.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Within Europe this species is associated with lowland areas of marshy or grassy wetlands, often along river valleys, with small, shallow, often-temporary lakes and ponds. In the former Soviet Union it has been reported from steppe, forest steppe, broad-leaved and mixed leafed coniferous forests, but it also inhabits open landscapes, using drainage channels as pathways for dispersal. At the southeastern margin of its distribution, the species lives in permanent freshwater bodies in river valleys surrounded by an arid saline landscape (solonetz-solonchak complex). It is primarily an aquatic animal living in shallow (less than 50-70cm depth) stagnant lakes, ponds, pools, swamps, peat bogs, ditches, flooded rice fields and quarries. It may occasionally be found in semi-flowing waters: springs, irrigation channels, rivers and stream pools and the water must generally be clear (for example in the Carpathian region, B. bombina lives in wetlands with clearer water than the congeneric Bombina variegata); however, near the southern margin of the range (such as southeastern Ukraine and the Krasnodar Region) the species often occurs in waters that have been polluted with industrial and agricultural chemicals such as settling and sedimentation reservoirs, rice fields, polluted ponds in rural and urban areas. The species breeds by larval development in pools with a good growth of sub-aquatic vegetation. Hybrid populations of this species with B. variegata have been recorded.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In western and northern Europe the species is threatened by the loss of habitat through modernisation of agricultural methods, most significantly the drainage and/or pollution of suitable wetland areas. Recent declines in northwestern Europe might also be related to climate change. In Turkey it is threatened by urban development and agricultural development. Within the former Soviet Union destruction of wetlands is also the most serious threat, although industrial pollution and recreational activities also impact populations. Additional localized threats to this species include mortality on roads, entrapment in open wells with vertical walls, hybridization and replacement by Bombina variegata and collection for the pet trade. However, at a global scale this species is not significantly threatened.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and on Annexes II and IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries, occurs in many protected areas, and is listed in many national and sub-national Red Data books and lists. This species has been successfully reintroduced to some sites in Sweden (Arnold, 2002), as of 2008 there are 10,000 adults in 3,000 breeding ponds. In other parts of this species range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.

Citation: Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avisi, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, Uğur Kaya. 2009. Bombina bombina. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T2865A9489517. . Downloaded on 31 May 2016.
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