Bofilliella subarcuata 

Scope: Global & Europe
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Clausiliidae

Scientific Name: Bofilliella subarcuata (Bofill, 1897)
Nenia subarcuata Bofill and Poch, 1897
Taxonomic Source(s): Bank, R.A. 2013. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca: Gastropoda. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-05-10
Assessor(s): Gómez Moliner, B.J.
Reviewer(s): Bank, R. & Martínez-Ortí, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Cálix, M.
The present species is found in the eastern Catalan Pyrenees (Spain), with a neighbouring locality in southern France. It lives between stones and roots under thick layers of leaf-litter in woodlands. These habitats maintain high humidity levels even during dry weather conditions. It is also present in cave entrances and within crevices. This species is assessed as Near Threatened since it has a restricted geographic range and the population is severely fragmented; thus making it close to qualifying for a threatened category under Criterion B. The species generally only has less than 1 km2 of suitable habitat per site and subpopulations are separated by unsuitable habitat.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Eastern Pyrenees, mostly distributed in the Spanish shires of La Garrotxa, L'Alt Empordà, Osona and Gironés, in the provinces of Barcelona and Girona. The species has been recorded between 150 and 950 m (Bech 1990, Nebot 2006). It has also been reported in one locality in southern France, close to the border with Spain (Arles sur Tech). The extent of occurrence (EOO) is 1,400 km2 and the known area of occupancy (AOO) is 24 km2.
Countries occurrence:
France (France (mainland)); Spain (Spain (mainland))
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:24Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):NoExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:19Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):150
Upper elevation limit (metres):950
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is no information about population size or trend. It has been found alive only in five localities, and it is usually considered rare, in part due to the historic lack of knowledge of its habitat, until recently. Shells of this species have also been found in another ten localities. Research focused on quantifying the population size and trends is needed. Gittenberger (2007) found a density of about two specimens per square meter in a site with well preserved habitat, which is considered low when taking into account the extent of suitable habitat. The population is considered to be severely fragmented, since subpopulations are very small and isolated, and may go extinct with a reduced probability of recolonisation.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is an hygrophilous species, living in leaf litter in woodlands and in cave entrances in humid places. In the only locality where the habitat has been deeply characterized, the present species is difficult to be found alive, since it is necessary to dig tens of centimeters into the soil layer, and to remove loose, small limestone rocks, mixed with humus and roots under luxuriant vegetation with oaks, box and holly (Gittenberger 2007). It is also present in cave entrances and within crevices. There are no studies about its life cycle.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is known to be collected.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats include road and urban enlargement, forest fires and the increasing number of droughts due to climate change. The collection of this peculiar species can also have severe impacts on the natural subpopulations. These threats are likely to have a negative impact on this species

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Bofilliella subarcuata is strictly protected in the natural protected areas of Collsacabra and Zona Volcànica de La Garrotxa (Decret 328/1992). There are no conservation actions on this species.

Citation: Gómez Moliner, B.J. 2017. Bofilliella subarcuata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T2846A85564218. . Downloaded on 17 July 2018.
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