|Scientific Name:||Westralunio carteri|
|Species Authority:||Iredalei, 1944|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Walker, K.F., Jones, H.A. and Klunzinger, M.W. 2013. Bivalves in a bottleneck: taxonomy, phylogeography and conservation of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida) in Australasia. Hydrobiologia.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Conventionally accepted as Westralunio carteri (Iredale, 1934). There have been no recent changes to its taxonomy (Walker et al. 2013);
Iredale (1934) referred to two subspecies: Westralunio ambiguus ambiguus and Westralunio ambiguus carteri. McMichael & Hiscock (1958) recognised Westralunio carteri as a single taxon to avoid confusion with Velesunio ambiguus, a widespread species from eastern Australia.
Older synonyms include:
This species is the sole representative of the genus in Australia, with two other Westralunio species occurring in New Guinea (McMichael and Hiscock 1958, Walker et al. 2013). The evolutionary relationship between the three species is currently unknown and their description is based primarily on adult shell characters.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Klunzinger, M & Walker, KF|
|Reviewer(s):||Lopes-Lima , M. & Seddon, M.B.|
|Contributor(s):||Beatty, S., Keleher, J., Kirkendale, L., Lymbery, A., Morgan, D., Pinder, A., Robert, J., Slack-Smith, S. & Whisson, C.|
Westralunio carteri is restricted to south-western Western Australia, and occurs in 13 of 18 river basins in the South West Coast Drainage Division. Where the species occurs, subpopulations are found within 100 km of the coast. Some subpopulations have declined or have experienced catastrophic mortality leading to loss of entire subpopulations caused by increased water salinity, physical destruction of habitat and reduced river flows (hence stranding and possible predation by mammals).
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Westralunio carteri is restricted to south-western Australia.
Native:Australia (Western Australia)
|Number of Locations:||4|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||200|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Current population size is not available. Some subpopulations have declined from catastrophic mortality (e.g., salinity, physical destruction of habitat, exposure to air and possibly predation by introduced mammals).
Where suitable habitats remain in ‘good’ condition, the species can still be found in relatively dense patches (20-50 individuals/m²), but seldom >100 mussels/m² overall population trend is decreasing as threats continue (Klunzinger et al. 2012b, 2014b).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
(Kendrick 1976; Morgan et al. 2011; Klunzinger et al. 2012a,b, 2013, 2014a; Walker et al. 2013)
Introduced Fishes: Gambusia holbrooki (Girard, 1859); Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868)
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||19.5-29|
|Use and Trade:||
According to early European accounts by Sir George Grey, in his book entitled ‘A Vocabulary of the Dialects of South Western Australia’ (Grey 1841), the Nyoongar name used for this species was probably either ‘Inbee’ or ‘Marailya’ which he described as being “a species of Unio, generally called the fresh water mussel. The natives of this part of Australia will not eat them, having a tradition, that many years ago some natives were poisoned by them; but to the north-west part they are a favourite article of food. Europeans about the Swan River occasionally eat them, and I have made several hearty meals from them.”
There have been a few select threat abatement actions in localized subpopulations undertaken through environmental consultancies for state government agencies. However, the success of translocation strategies to mitigate impacts is unknown. Otherwise, there are currently no recovery or threat abatement/mitigation actions proposed or planned specifically for the species.
|Citation:||Klunzinger, M & Walker, KF. 2014. Westralunio carteri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T23073A58526341. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T23073A58526341.en . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.|
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