|Scientific Name:||Vespertilio murinus|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Hutson, A.M., Spitzenberger, F., Aulagnier, S., Coroiu, I., Stubbe, M., Ariunbold, J., Buuveibaatar, V., Dorjderem, S., Monkhzul, Ts., Otgonbaatar, M. & Tsogbadrakh, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Vié, J.-C. & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern, because this species has a large population size and a wide distribution. No declines in population size have been detected, and there are no known widespread major threats.
Vespertilio murinus has a wide distribution in the northern Palaearctic, from France, Britain and the Netherlands in the west through central, northern, and eastern Europe and Siberia to the Pacific coast. In the Mediterranean region this species occurs from southeastern France eastwards through northern Italy and Switzerland into most of the Balkans. There are scattered records from Turkey. In Japan, it has only been recorded from Rebun Island in 2002 (Abe, et al., 2005). The northern limit is above 60°N in Fennoscandia and ca. 63°N in Russia, and the southern limit of its range passes through the Balkan peninsula, northern Iran, central Asia, Afghanistan, northern Pakistan, and China. The southern records refer to wintering individuals, and the westernmost records refer to vagrants. Breeding is restricted to the northern part of the range in this migratory species. It occurs from sea level to 3,400 m asl (Molur et al. 2002)
In Mongolia, it was first recorded in 1964 in Shargyn Govi in Mongol Altai Mountain Range (Stubbe and Chotolchu, 1968), currently distributed throughout Mongolia including Hentii and Hangai mountain ranges (Tinnin et al., 2002), and Valley of the Lakes (Sokolov and Orlov, 1980). In China, the subspecies V. m. murinus Linnaeus, 1758 occurs in the provinces of Xinjiang (northwest China) and Gansu (central China), and V. m. ussuriensis Wallin, 1969 occurs in the provinces of Nei Mongol and Heilongjiang.
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Japan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||An abundant species in northern parts of its European range. Summer maternity colonies number 30-50 (exceptionally 200) females; males may also form large colonies in summer. In winter it usually occurs singly or in small groups (although clusters of up to 30 have been recorded). Populations are expanding in some parts of the range, for example Denmark (H. J. Baagøe pers. comm.) and the Netherlands (H.J.G.A. Limpens pers. comm.). This species has a wide distribution, but a low abundance within Mongolia (M. Stubbe pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It forages in open areas over various habitat types (forest, semi-desert, urban, steppe, agricultural land). It feeds on moths and beetles. Summer roosts tend to be situated in houses or other buildings; also rarely hollow trees, nest boxes, or rock crevices. Winter roost sites include rock fissures, often (as substitute) crevices in tall buildings (including, or especially, in cities), occasionally tree holes or cellars. Winter roosts are usually in colder sites that are exposed to temperature changes. Migrations of up to 1,780 km have been recorded (Markovets et al. 2004), although the species is sedentary in a large part of its range. This nocturnal species appears late in the evening, sleeping in narrow crevices during the day. They live in small colonies and often single individuals are sighted. It hibernates throughout the winter. Young are born in June/July, generally 2 are born at a time, and are stuck onto the chest of the mother during flight. Feeds on small dipterans, beetles and moths.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species across its range. In Europe, although not a major threat, the species is affected by loss of, or disturbance to roosts in buildings.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is protected by national legislation in most range states. There are also international legal obligations for its protection through the Bonn Convention (Eurobats) and Bern Convention, in parts of its range where these apply. It is included in Annex IV of EU Habitats and Species Directive. It occurs in several protected areas throughout its range.|
|Citation:||Hutson, A.M., Spitzenberger, F., Aulagnier, S., Coroiu, I., Stubbe, M., Ariunbold, J., Buuveibaatar, V., Dorjderem, S., Monkhzul, Ts., Otgonbaatar, M. & Tsogbadrakh, M. 2008. Vespertilio murinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 September 2015.|
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