Zosterops somadikartai 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Zosteropidae

Scientific Name: Zosterops somadikartai Indrawan, Rasmussen & Sunarto, 2008
Common Name(s):
English Togian White-eye
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: c. 11 cm. Forehand and forecrown (to above eye) and lores black. Dark, slaty grey, bare, fleshy eyering with some tiny white white feathers visible at extremely close range. Upperparts from rear crown to back citrine. More olive on side of head, rump yellow-tinged olive-green. Upperwing-coverts olive-green, flight-feathers and tail feathers with yellowish olive-green edges and blackish tips. Chin and throat sulphur-yellow, upper breast pale grey, lower breast and bell white. White underwing-coverts. Iris dark red, bill black, pale flesh at base of lower mandible. Legs metallic horn. Voice Thin sweet warble, similar to that of Z. atrifrons but less modulated. Twittering chirrups heard from small moving flocks.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Indrawan, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Calvert, R., Khwaja, N., Martin, R
This recently described species has a very small range in which habitat degradation is likely to be causing the population to decline. However, it is not known to be severely fragmented or restricted to few locations, therefore the species is classified as Near Threatened. Further information may lead to the species being uplisted in the future.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Zosterops somadikartai is native to the Togian Islands, Indonesia. Its population size has not been quantified owing to its recent discovery, but is has been described as uncommon and localised, and the population is suspected to be declining owing to habitat destruction (del Hoyo et al. 2008, Indrawan et al. 2008).

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:980
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size of this species has not been quantified but is has been described as uncommon and localised.

Trend Justification:  Population trends are not available for this species owing to its recent discovery, however the population is suspected to be declining owing to ongoing habitat loss (Indrawan et al. 2008).

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:UnknownContinuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species has been recorded in low bushes near mangroves, gardens, coconut groves, secondary shrub, and in logged-over forest from sea level to 100 m (del Hoyo et al. 2008, Indrawan et al. 2008, D. Indrawan in litt. 2010). It typically roosts in shrubs which are 5-15 m tall. Its diet is comprised of insects, including caterpillars, which are gleaned from branches and beneath leaves. It forages in pairs or small flocks of up to five individuals, often visiting dense, low shrubs (del Hoyo et al. 2008, Indrawan et al. 2008).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):3.5
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The extent and quality of suitable habitat on the Togian Islands is likely to be decreasing owing to conversion and overexploitation of resources (del Hoyo et al. 2008, Indrawan et al. 2008). In the past mining (for minerals, especially prospecting for gold) has caused habitat loss and degradation and it is suspected that further mining activities may take place in the future, possibly under the guise of applications to develop palm oil plantations (M. Indrawan in litt. 2016). Oil palm proposals tabled in 2012-2013 were halted through advocacy which led to a 2014 local parliamentary decision to prevent palm oil development on the island altogether, however there remains the threat that large-scale forest conversion may return given the isolation of the islands and concentration of political power in a single district head (M. Indrawan in litt. 2016). Conflicts among the residents over guiding and lodging opportunities arising from unregulated tourism may undermine efforts to maintain consistent support for conservation, and tourism infrastructure may encroach on forested areas or lead to exploitation for building materials (M. Indrawan in litt. 2016).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The Togian Islands have been declared a national park (del Hoyo et al. 2008). A team of local residents are promoting the adoption of sustainable agriculture, with relevant stakeholders including local communities and district government engaged to build capacity in local communities to achieve better and more sustainable tenure (Indrawan et al. 2013). Negotiations to secure community-conserved areas were constrained by difficulties in outreach due to the geographic isolation of many communities, but a local group mission to protect local culture and nature through revitalisation of indigenous values has been formed (M. Indrawan in litt. 2016). 

Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess the population size and establish a monitoring programme to establish trends. Establish ecological requirements. Identify and assess threats. Provide support to local communities for efforts to delimit indigenous territory under forest cover, and for forest restoration and use of non-timber forest products (Indrawan et al. 2013). Work towards the establishment of appropriately sized and situated protected areas, through community-based forest protection (Indrawan et al. 2010, 2013), that support viable populations of this and other threatened species known to occur on the islands. Continue to work with local communities to promote the conservation of this species.

Amended [top]

Amended reason: Edited Conservation Actions and Threats Information text, with subsequent edits to the list of threats, references and Actions Needed. Added a Facilitator/Compiler.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2017. Zosterops somadikartai (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22736183A110787580. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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