Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Psittaciformes Psittacidae

Scientific Name: Pyrrhura griseipectus
Species Authority: Salvadori, 1900
Common Name(s):
English Grey-breasted Parakeet, Gray-breasted Parakeet
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Pyrrhura leucotis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into P. leucotis, P. griseipectus and P. pfrimeri following SACC (2005).

Identification information: 23 cm. Overall a green parakeet with blue in the wing, a red-brown rump, tail, belly and shoulder. The chest and breast are greyish with pale scallops. The face is plum-red while the pileum is all brown. Similar spp subtly different from P. leucotis and P. pfrimeri, having a brown pileum, a white auricular patch and a grey breast. Its coloration, especially the breast, resembles two widely disjunct taxa, P. caeruleiceps of Venezuela and P. eisenmanni from Panama. Nevertheless, P. griseipectus differs from caeruleiceps and eisenmanni in its all-brown pileum (fore- and hindcrown blue in caeruleiceps, forecrown dull red in eisenmanni), maroon cheeks (dull red in caeruleiceps and eisenmanni) and red shoulders.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Albano, C., Campos, A., Girao, W., Olmos, F. & Pinto, T.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J & Symes, A.
Recent surveys indicate that this species has an extremely small population which continues to decline following dramatic historic declines. For these reasons it qualifies as Criticially Endangered.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2010 Critically Endangered (CR)
2009 Critically Endangered (CR)
2008 Critically Endangered (CR)
2007 Critically Endangered (CR)
2006 Not Evaluated (NE)
2004 Not Recognized (NR)
2000 Not Recognized (NR)
1994 Not Recognized (NR)
1988 Not Recognized (NR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is known historically from four areas in north-eastern Brazil, but currently from just two of these: the Serra do Baturité and Quixadá in Ceará (C. Albano in litt. 2006, Waugh et al. 2010). In Serra do Baturité it seems to be very uncommon and to have been extirpated from several areas, but there are recent records of groups in the Baturité Mountains Environmental Protection Area; surveys on 2007 of half the remaining habitat at this site revealed c.80 individuals (C. Albano in litt. 2007, 2008) and the population here is now estimated to be c.250 birds (Waugh et al. 2010). The forests of the Baturité Mountains have been greatly reduced to make room for shade and sun coffee and only 13% of the forest remained in 1996. The discovery in 2010 of a population of c.50 birds in Quixadá (Waugh et al. 2010) raises the known global population to c.300 birds. The species was formerly known from two other areas: the eastern slope of the Serra de Ibiapaba in Ceará, and the tiny Serra Negra in Pernambuco where it was very common in 1974, with flocks of 4-6 individuals regularly seen in the early 1980s, but there are no recent records. There are also unconfirmed reports from 1991 in Murici Ecological Station in Alagoas which possibly refer to released individuals; recent fieldwork there failed to locate the species. Its known range is very small, and the species has declined dramatically in the past, a trend which may be ongoing.

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 660
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 2
Continuing decline in number of locations: No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 500
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1100
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population at the Baturité Mountains Environmental Protection Area is estimated to be c.250 birds, and the discovery in 2010 of a population of c.50 birds in Quixadá raises the known global population to c.300 birds (Waugh et al. 2010). This roughly equates to 200 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  This species is suspected to be declining rapidly owing to heavy trapping and ongoing habitat loss within its range.

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 200 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 90-94

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It occurs in montane (above 500 m) humid forest enclaves in the otherwise semi-arid north-east Brazil. These wet 'sky islands' are known locally as 'brejos'. Humid forests grade into semi-deciduous forest and eventually dry, xeric caatingas in lower areas. The forests are restricted to upland granite or sandstone areas which receive up to four times the annual rainfall of lower altitudes. The humid forests atop the Baturité massif form a continuous canopy c.20 m tall, with some emergents. Birds feed on fruit and seeds in the canopy of humid and semi-deciduous forest.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 6
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat destruction has played a role in the species's decline with original forest cover now reduced to just 13%. Coffee plantations (especially where sun coffee is grown instead of shade coffee) are impacting upon the species's habitat. The principal threat, however, is believed to come from ongoing trapping for illegal local and national trade (C. Albano in litt. 2006, Anon 2009). The species also occurs in the international cage bird trade.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed as Critically Endangered on the Brazilian official Red List (C. Albano in litt. 2006). It occurs within the Baturité Mountains Environmental Protection Area, but this area is designated for sustainable use and has not traditionally been managed for conservation. Land management by a private landowner in the area has led to an increase in one small known population (C. Albano in litt. 2006). Since 2007, the Brazilian NGO AQUASIS has been conducting two research projects: one sponsored by the Brazilian "Fundação O Boticário de Proteção à Natureza", surveying the Baturité Mountains to monitor its status and research its biology; and another sponsored by the Loro Parque Fundacion, searching for additional populations (C. Albano in litt. 2007, 2008). Surveys in historical sites and areas of potential habitat in 2007-2008 failed to locate the species, although there were strong indications from locals that it still occurred in the degraded Serra do Estevão, Quixada municipality, Ceará state (C. Albano in litt. 2007, 2008, Anon 2007), where it was indeed rediscovered in 2010 (Waugh et al. 2010). It may also persist at Serra Negra Biological Reserve, Pernambuco state, although a combination of marijuana cultivations and hostile local culture makes survey work in the latter area difficult (C. Albano in litt. 2007, 2008). At least 11 private reserves (RPPN) are in the process of being created in the Serra de Baturité (C. Albano in litt. 2007, 2008). A Loro Parque-sponsored nest box scheme is taking place, and so far 19 have been installed on sites with sympathetic landownders, with a view to eventually install 60 (Anon 2009). A large scale education and awareness campaign took place in the Serra de Baturité in 2008 (C. Albano in litt. 2007, 2008), and a principal objective of AQUASIS is to promote it as a flagship species, work which is being supported by local NGO AGUA and ecotourism business Parque das Trilhas (Anon 2009). AQUASIS also aims to build capacity for bird-watching and in the process develop awareness and create alternative livelihoods (Anon 2009). It breeds well in captivity and populations are held both in Brazil and abroad. Provided these are well managed and coordinated they could be used for reintroductions.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out further surveys in similar areas to the Baturité Mountains in north-eastern Brazil, such as the serras de Aratanha, Maranguape and Machado, for the presence of addtional extant populations. Continue monitoring the known population in the Serra do Baturité. Improve conservation management practised in the Guaramiranga Ecological Park. Provide incentives for landowners to increase the network of private reserves in the Baturité Mountains. Monitor and control trade at local, national and international levels. Investigate the feasibility of using artificial nests to increase reproductive success. Continue to conduct awareness campaigns to promote the Grey-breasted Parakeet as a symbol for the conservation of the moist forests and associated biodiversity in the Baturité Mountains. Investigate ex situ conservation measures.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Pyrrhura griseipectus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22733968A37884240. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
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