|Scientific Name:||Thalassarche steadi Falla, 1933|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Identification information:||90 cm. Medium-sized black, slate-grey and white albatross with a black thumb mark at the base of the leading edge of the underwing. It has a bold white cap contrasting with a pale silver-grey face and a darker brow. Some adult birds may have a very white back with brown tips to the feathers (B. Watkins in litt. 2008). The mantle is dark grey and tail black. The body plumage is all white and its bill is pale grey/blue with a yellow tip. Immature birds have a grey bill with a dark tip, which lightens with age and a darker head than the adult with grey extending to the collar. Similar spp. Very similar to slightly smaller Shy Albatross T. cauta but T. steadi has paler face and less yellow on the culmen of the bill. Salvin's Albatross T. salvini and Chatham Albatross T. eremita have darker grey heads and lack the white cap.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Baker, B., Debski, I., Double, M., Gales, R., Hitchmough, R., Robertson, C., Ryan, P.G., Scofield, P., Thompson, D. & Watkins, B.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Anderson, O., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Moreno, R., Small, C., Sullivan, B., Symes, A., Martin, R|
The population trend of this albatross remains poorly known, as there is high inter-annual variability in breeding numbers and estimates prior to 2007 are not comparable with those made since. Analysis of recent data suggest that the trend may in fact be stable, but the species remains categorised as Near Threatened given the continuing uncertainty over its trend and because, given its longevity and slow productivity, and a high rate of mortality recorded in longline and trawl fisheries, it may be declining at a moderately rapid rate.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Thalassarche steadi is endemic to offshore islands of New Zealand, where it appears to breed biennially, with the annual breeding population estimated at c.101,798 pairs in 2014 (Baker et al. 2015). Ninety-five percent of breeding pairs are on Disappointment Island (96,242 - 97,486 pairs), with further breeding colonies on Adams (165- 221) and Auckland Islands (4,603 - 4,879) in the Auckland Islands group, and 50 - 100 pairs on Bollons Island in the Antipodes Islands group (Baker et al. 2015). 'Shy' type albatrosses (Shy and White-capped albatrosses at sea that cannot be differentiated from each other) have been recorded in the south-west Atlantic for many years (White et al. 2002, Phalan et al. 2004). Most of the birds recorded are immature, which has hindered specific identification. However, genetic evidence from a bird on South Georgia confirmed the species was T. steadi (Phalan et al. 2004). In addition, tracking studies (Thompson and Sagar 2007), bird band recoveries (Robertson et al. 2003) and DNA-based identification of bycatch specimens (Abbott et al. 2006) have confirmed that this species forages in Tasmania and Southern Africa/Namibia (Robertson et al. 2003), and immature birds are thought to occur regularly throughout the South Atlantic and south-west Indian Ocean. The first tracking studies commenced on Auckland Island in 2006 and are on-going (Thompson and Sagar 2007). Models developed indicated that the estimated bycatch from global fisheries is unsustainable for White-capped Albatross. However, as the observed population trend over the last 10 years has not shown the rate of decline predicted by modelling, it is possible that bycatch estimates used in the models were too high and impacts of fisheries bycatch on this species are less severe than predicted (Baker 2016).|
Native:Australia; Namibia; New Zealand; South Africa
Present - origin uncertain:Angola; Argentina; Brazil; Chile; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); French Southern Territories; Heard Island and McDonald Islands; Madagascar; Mauritius; Mozambique; Norfolk Island; Peru; Réunion; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Uruguay
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The annual breeding population was estimated at 100,501 pairs in 2012, but in recent years estimates have ranged from as high as 116,025 pairs in 2006 and as few as 73,838 in 2009. The 2012 estimate equates to c.201,000 mature individuals, but this species is now considered to be a biennial breeder, meaning that the total population may in fact be much larger.|
Trend Justification: Pre-2006/2007 population estimates were not based on comparable methodologies to current census methods and therefore population trends cannot be calculated before this time. Count data over nine years show strong inter-annual fluctuations and trend analysis using regression splines showed no evidence for monotonic decline over the nine years (2006-2014) of the study (Baker et al. 2015). Further data are therefore required to confirm the population trend, which is retained, on a precautionary basis, as a moderately rapid on-going decline.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour The breeding frequency and season for this colonially breeding species is poorly known (Petersen 2004), but recent indications are that it breeds biennially (ACAP 2009, Baker et al. 2015), with annual probability of breeding estimated at 0.68 (0.58–0.81, 95% C.I) by Francis (2012). No information is available about either juvenile survival or the age at first breeding (Francis 2012). Eggs are usually laid mid-November and hatch in February. Chicks depart the breeding site in June latest. Some adults remain near the colonies year-round (ACAP 2009). Habitat Breeding Colonies are generally located on rock islands. Diet The main foods include, fish, cephalopods, crustaceans and tunicates. It is a ship-follower and fish processing discharge comprises a significant proportion of its diet. Birds are generally surface feeders, but may undertake shallow surface dives.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||23.1|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
The geographic range of T. steadi brings them into contact with a variety of longline and trawl fisheries in New Zealand, the high seas and off the coast of South Africa and Namibia (Baker et al. 2007). The global bycatch of this species (including cryptic mortality) was estimated to be over 17,000 birds per year by Francis (2012), with c.30% of this bycatch coming from New Zealand fisheries, although this percentage appears to be declining, and lack of data concerning cryptic mortality make these estimates very uncertain.
However, although T. cauta ('shy-type') comprised 15% of all seabirds returned from longlines in New Zealand waters during 1988-1997 (Taylor 2000), New Zealand demersal and pelagic longline fisheries were considered to have a relatively low impact on T. steadi populations by Baker et al. (2007). Previously, this impact was higher; the Auckland Islands squid trawl fishery killed 2,300 adults in 1990 alone, most through collision with net monitor cables, which were phased out in 1992 (Croxall and Gales 1998, Taylor 2000). However, birds are still killed by entanglement in nets and by collision with warp cables in trawl fisheries (Taylor 2000, Baker et al. 2007).
This species is the most frequently caught species in pelagic tuna longline operations off South Africa (Ryan et al. 2002). It is estimated that 7,000-11,000 T. steadi were killed in the South African pelagic longline fishery between 1998-2000 (Ryan et al. 2002), and in 2005, an estimated 500-600 shy-type albatrosses were killed (Petersen 2004). In the South African demersal trawl fishery, observer data from 2004-2005 produced an estimate of 7,700 shy type albatrosses killed annually, and subsequent DNA analysis indicated that these were all T. steadi (ACAP 2009). In 2005 and 2006, T. steadi spent 85% of their time in southern African trawl grounds (ACAP 2009). Since the introduction of mandatory permit requirements in August 2006, whereby all vessels must deploy a bird streamer line, the bycatch rate has decreased but further data collection is required to establish a new catch estimate (Watkins et al. 2006). The impact of the large distant water fleets of Japan, Taiwan and Korea on T. steadi is largely unknown, but Japanese data from 2001-2002 indicate that at least 10% of recorded albatross mortalities were 'shy-type' albatrosses (Baker et al. 2007). It has been estimated that 8,200 White-capped Albatrosses are currently killed per annum, 75% of which are as a result of interactions with trawl fisheries in South African, Namibian and New Zealand waters (Baker et al. 2007). In the Uruguayan longline fleet operating in the southwest Atlantic Ocean, shy-type albatrosses (cauta-type) made up 25% of all birds observed in association with vessels, mostly immatures. Five individuals caught as bycatch were confirmed as T. steadi, but numbers caught were not sufficient to predict an overall bycatch level for the fleet (Jimenez et al. 2009).
Commercial exploitation of squid or fish reserves in Bass Strait could pose a threat to the species in the future by direct competition for food. On Auckland Island, the nesting area was significantly reduced during 1972-1982 because of interference by pigs, and feral cats may also take small numbers of chicks (Croxall and Gales 1998, Taylor 2000, Thompson and Sagar 2006).
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix II and ACAP Annex 1. The aerial survey program of the Disappointment Island population has run continuously from 2006 to 2016/17. The New Zealand Department of Conservation has recently contracted the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research to conduct demographic and tracking study of the Auckland Islands populations. Conservation Actions Proposed
Census populations on all New Zealand islands. Conduct regular monitoring of a representative proportion of the population. Determine the at-sea distribution of the species through tracking studies and the interaction with longline and trawl fisheries (BirdLife International 2004). Promote the adoption of a) monitoring of seabird bycatch associated with longline and trawl fishing and b) best-practice mitigation measures in all fisheries within the species range, including via intergovernmental mechanisms such as ACAP, the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission and FAO.
|Amended reason:||The Geographic Range, Population Justification, Threats and Conservation Actions text fields were edited. The estimated number of mature individuals was updated, and additional references were entered along with a new Contributor.|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Thalassarche steadi. (amended version published in 2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22729609A112216914.Downloaded on 23 September 2017.|
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