Butorides striata 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Pelecaniformes Ardeidae

Scientific Name: Butorides striata (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Green-backed Heron
Butorides virescens (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Butorides striata (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously split as B. striata and B. virescens following AOU (2003), and before then B. striata was split as B. striatus and B. sundevalli following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993). Gender agreement of B. striata follows David and Gosselin (2002b).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Angola; Anguilla; Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bhutan; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Botswana; Brazil; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cayman Islands; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Curaçao; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Israel; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Martinique; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Montserrat; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; New Caledonia; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Réunion; Russian Federation (Eastern Asian Russia); Rwanda; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sao Tomé and Principe; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; South Sudan; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; United States; Uruguay; Vanuatu; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Bahrain; Christmas Island; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); Greenland; Jordan; Portugal; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; United Kingdom
Present - origin uncertain:
Antigua and Barbuda; Barbados
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:286000000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1900
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population has not been estimated following recent taxonomic changes.

Trend Justification:  The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Behaviour The majority of this species is sedentary although northern breeding populations are migratory and populations in Africa may perform local movements relating to seasonal rainfall (del Hoyo et al. 1992). The timing of breeding varies geographically but often occurs during the rains in the tropics (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005). The species is highly territorial and often forages and nests singly (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005), occasionally also nesting in loosely spaced single-species groups of 5-15 pairs, or even in larger breeding aggregations of several hundred (300-500) (del Hoyo et al. 1992) pairs (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Habitat The species shows a preference for forested water margins (Hancock and Kushlan 1984, Kushlan and Hancock 2005) such as mangrove-lined shores and estuaries, or dense woody vegetation fringing ponds, rivers, lakes and streams (Hancock and Kushlan 1984, del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Other suitable habitats include river swamps, canals, artificial ponds, salt-flats (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), mudflats, tidal zones, exposed coral reefs (del Hoyo et al. 1992), reedbeds, grassy marshland, pastures, rice-fields and other flooded cultivation (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Diet Its diet varies considerably over its range (del Hoyo et al. 1992) but usually consists predominantly of fish (del Hoyo et al. 1992, Kushlan and Hancock 2005) as well as amphibians (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. frogs) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), insects (del Hoyo et al. 1992) (e.g. water beetles, grasshoppers and dragonflies) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), spiders, leeches, crustaceans (e.g. crabs and prawns), molluscs (del Hoyo et al. 1992), earthworms, polychaete worms, birds (Kushlan and Hancock 2005), small reptiles and mice (del Hoyo et al. 1992). Breeding site The nest is a small, shallow structure of twigs (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) placed well hidden amongst the branches of trees or bushes (especially mangroves Rhizophora spp. and Avicennia spp., or Allocasuarina spp., Myoporum spp., Callistemon spp., Hibiscus spp., Casuarina spp., Syzygium spp. and Inga spp.) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005) 0.3-10 m above the surface of water or above the ground (del Hoyo et al. 1992).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):5.1
Movement patterns:Full Migrant
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by human disturbance, pesticides (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and habitat destruction (e.g. the loss of mangroves) (Kushlan and Hancock 2005). Utilisation The species is taken for food in some areas (del Hoyo et al. 1992).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Butorides striata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22728182A94973442. . Downloaded on 25 June 2018.
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