|Scientific Name:||Himantopus himantopus (Linnaeus, 1758)|
Himantopus leucocephalus Gould, 1837
Himantopus mexicanus (Müller, 1776)
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
Himantopus himantopus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously split as H. himantopus, H. leucocephalus and H. mexicanus and following AOU (1998) and SACC (2006). Prior to that, H. melanurus had been split from H. mexicanus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Malpas, L., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is unclear but it is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Armenia; Aruba; Australia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belarus; Belgium; Belize; Benin; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Canada; Cape Verde; Cayman Islands; Central African Republic; Chad; Chile; China; Colombia; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cuba; Curaçao; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Falkland Islands (Malvinas); France; French Guiana; Gabon; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Greece; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia; Mali; Malta; Martinique; Mauritania; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Montserrat; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); Rwanda; Saint Barthélemy; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Timor-Leste; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Western Sahara; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:Christmas Island; Congo; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; Gibraltar; Iceland; Ireland; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Luxembourg; Maldives; Norway; Seychelles; Sweden
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number c.450,000-780,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 53,900-75,700 pairs, which equates to 108,000-151,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).|
Trend Justification: The overall population trend is unclear, some populations may be stable, increasing or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Behaviour Northern populations of this species make long-distance migratory movements, travelling southwards to their wintering grounds between August and November and returning to their breeding areas between March and April (Hayman et al. 1986). In more temperate regions the species is sedentary or only locally dispersive however (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species breeds solitarily or in loose colonies of 2-50 or occasionally up to several hundred pairs (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996). It is typically a gregarious species, occurring in small groups (Snow and Perrins 1998) (up to 15 individuals) (Urban et al. 1986, del Hoyo et al. 1996) or larger flocks of several hundred up to a thousand individuals on migration, during the winter (Urban et al. 1986, Snow and Perrins 1998) and at nightly roosts (Urban et al. 1986). Habitat Breeding The species typically breeds in shallow freshwater and brackish wetlands with sand, mud or clay substrates and open margins, islets or spits near water level (Snow and Perrins 1998). Suitable habitats include marshes and swamps, shallow lake edges, riverbeds, flooded fields (del Hoyo et al. 1996), irrigated areas (Snow and Perrins 1998), sewage ponds (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and fish-ponds (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species may also breed around alkaline and high-altitude (montane) lakes (del Hoyo et al. 1996) or in more saline environments such as river deltas, estuaries (Snow and Perrins 1998), coastal lagoons (Johnsgard 1981, Snow and Perrins 1998) and shallow coastal pools with extensive areas of mudflats, salt meadows (Johnsgard 1981), saltpans, coastal marshes (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and swamps (Snow and Perrins 1998). Non-breeding Outside of the breeding season the species occupies the shores of large inland waterbodies and estuarine or coastal habitats (del Hoyo et al. 1996) such as river deltas (Snow and Perrins 1998), coastal lagoons (Johnsgard 1981, Snow and Perrins 1998) and shallow freshwater or brackish pools with extensive areas of mudflats, salt meadows (Johnsgard 1981), saltpans, coastal marshes (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and swamps (Snow and Perrins 1998). Diet Its diet is strongly seasonal (del Hoyo et al. 1996) but generally includes adult and larval aquatic insects (e.g. Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Diptera, Neuroptera and Lepidoptera), molluscs, crustaceans, spiders, oligochaete and polychaete worms, tadpoles (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and amphibian spawn (Urban et al. 1986), small fish, fish eggs (del Hoyo et al. 1996) and occasionally seeds (Urban et al. 1986). Breeding site The nest is a depression (Flint et al. 1984) or shallow scrape positioned on hard ground near water on a hummock (Flint et al. 1984) or amongst grass and sedge (del Hoyo et al. 1996). Alternatively the nest may be a more elaborate platform of vegetation (Snow and Perrins 1998) constructed on a floating mass of aquatic vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1996). The species nests singly or in loose colonies (del Hoyo et al. 1996), showing a preference for open areas close to foraging sites with good all-round (360 degree) visibility (Johnsgard 1981).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||7.3|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Himantopus himantopus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22727969A86541570.Downloaded on 20 September 2017.|
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