Falco chicquera 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Falconiformes Falconidae

Scientific Name: Falco chicquera Daudin, 1800
Common Name(s):
English Red-headed Falcon, Red-necked Falcon
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes:

Falco chicquera and F. ruficollis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as F. chicquera following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Identification information: 30-36cm. A small, dashing falcon with a chestnut crown and neck, white throat, and plain, pale blue-grey upperside and tail with a black subterminal band and white tip. Underparts are white with fine black barring. Similar spp. African F. ruficollis has a darker, narrowly black-barred back and tail, black moustacial stripe and eyebrow, and denser black barring below.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Rahmani, A., Ayé, R., Singh, A.P., Vyas, V., Baral, H., Inskipp, C. & Subramanya, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Martin, R, Westrip, J.
This recently-split falcon is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline over three generations owing to the effects of ongoing habitat degradation. It is therefore classified as Near Threatened.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Falco chicquera is found across much of South Asia, including Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and into Myanmar. It has also been claimed to occur in south-eastern Iran (del Hoyo et al. 1994) however the species is only known there from one historical record (R. Ayé in litt. 2014). This species is noted to have disappeared from many parts of India, in what is perceived as an overall decline (A. Rahmani in litt. 2011), it is widespread but uncommon in Pakistan, where it has declined since the 1940s in part due to the falconry trade (Roberts 1991), and rare in Bangladesh. In Nepal it is uncommon at Koshi in the far eastern terai but is widely but very thinly spread over other localities in the terai (Inskipp et al. 2016) with most Nepal records outside the protected areas’ system (Inskipp et al. 2016).
Countries occurrence:
Bangladesh; India; Nepal; Pakistan
Myanmar; Sri Lanka
Present - origin uncertain:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:5800000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number in the tens of thousands.

Trend Justification:  No trend data are available, but the species is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline (approaching 30% over three generations [c.19 years]), owing to ongoing habitat degradation.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Tends to be found in open country with patches of trees close to water, often in regions of low rainfall (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Frequently nests around villages or even within densely populated cities in India. Recorded generally from sea-level to 1,000 m. Mostly takes small birds caught on the wing and frequently hunts in pairs (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Laying takes place during January-May in India, February-April in Pakistan (del Hoyo et al. 1994), and has been reported January-February in Bangladesh (Foysal 2014). Nomadic in some areas, but mostly resident (del Hoyo et al. 1994).
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):6.2
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species was probably naturally sparsely distributed and requiring large territories. Rapid urbanisation and development may be the main cause of declines in parts of the range, for example around Bangalore city, where the population dwindled from five breeding pairs prior to the mid 1990s to only sporadic recent sightings, presumably due to the conversion of habitat within their territories into densely packed bustling residential/built-up areas (S. Subramanya in litt. 2014). In Nepal there has been a sharp reduction in abundance in the Kathmandu Valley, from being very common in the 19th century to absent over at least the last 25 years. The cause of this decline is uncertain but may relate to widespread and intensive pesticide use (Inskipp et al. 2016). At least historically, capture for the falconry trade may have posed an additional threat (Roberts 1991).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation and research actions underway
No targeted actions are known.

Conservation and research actions proposed
Continue to carry out regular surveys to monitor population trends. Conduct further research into the effects of changes in urban areas, agricultural land and land management. Prevent capture for trade in problem areas through law enforcement, prosecution and awareness campaigns.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Falco chicquera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22727778A94961899. . Downloaded on 21 July 2018.
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