|Scientific Name:||Oxyura jamaicensis|
|Species Authority:||(Gmelin, 1789)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
Oxyura jamaicensis and O. ferruginea (incorporating andina) (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as O. jamaicensis following SACC (2005), and before then were split as O. jamaicensis (incorporating andina) and O. ferruginea following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Temple, H.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Bahamas; Barbados; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Canada; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; El Salvador; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Introduced:Austria; Belgium; Denmark; France; Germany; Iceland; Ireland; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Algeria; Finland; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Hungary; Israel; Italy; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Slovenia; Tunisia; Turkey
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species is partly migratory; North American breeders tend to depart from breeding grounds to winter further south or near the coast, whereas other populations are sedentary or make only short-distance movements. Freshwater swamps, lakes, pools, and marshes with emergent vegetation and open water are preferred breeding habitats, although outside the breeding season the species can also be found on larger lakes, brackish lagoons and estuaries (Carboneras 1992).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||6.2|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Oxyura jamaicensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22727750A94960545.Downloaded on 23 August 2017.|
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