Alcedo euryzona 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Coraciiformes Alcedinidae

Scientific Name: Alcedo euryzona
Species Authority: Temminck, 1830
Common Name(s):
English Javan Blue-banded Kingfisher, Blue-banded Kingfisher
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes:

Alcedo euryzona and A. peninsulae (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as A. euryzona following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Identification information: 17 cm. Robust, medium-sized river kingfisher. Dark blackish upperparts with silvery-azure streak from mantle to rump. Long, white neck-flash with rufous tip. White throat becoming yellow-buff on the sides; rest of underparts mostly pale yellow-buff  in male and orange in female. Both sexes show a solid blue band across chest. Similar spp. A. peninsulae of Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia is whiter below and the pale blue breast band in the male is mottled white, while the female shows no breast band and is a brighter orange below. Common Kingfisher A. atthis smaller, greenish-blue above, lacking breast-band. Voice. High-pitched squeaks in flight, harsher than A. atthis.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Aik, Y., Davison, G., Cox, B., van Balen, B., Yong, D. & Cooleman, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Martin, R, Symes, A. & Ashpole, J
This recently-split kingfisher is largely restricted to rivers in lowland forest and, as such, is suspected to be undergoing a continuing population decline as a result of significant losses in the extent of this habitat throughout its range. There are very few recent records, and it is precautionarily inferred that any remaining subpopulations are extremely small and declining. It has therefore been listed as Critically Endangered, however there remains a possibility it has been under-recorded, and if it is found to be more numerous than is currently feared it may warrant downlisting in future.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2015 Critically Endangered (CR)
2014 Critically Endangered (CR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The species is endemic to Java, Indonesia, where apparently the only records since the 1930s are two reports of individuals seen in Gunung Halimun National Park in June 2009 (Birdlife International 2001, B. Cox in litt. 2009) and further sightings within the same area in August 2014 (S. Cooleman in litt. 2014). It may be under-recorded owing to its shy behaviour and often remote habitat (B. van Balen in litt. 2012).

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Jawa)
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 125000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Given the lack of recent records, any remaining population is precautionarily inferred to be extremely small, and a preliminary estimate places the population in the band 50-249 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  Rates of forest loss in Java have been rapid and are continuing, hence the population is suspected to be declining rapidly as a result.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 50-249 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is generally sedentary on rocky or slow-flowing streams and larger rivers running through forest (usually humid evergreen, but also back-mangroves and mixed dipterocarp-dominated forest), most commonly in the lowlands, but ascending locally to 1,500 m (Fry and Fry 1999, del Hoyo et al. 2001). It is predominantly piscivorous, also consuming crustaceans, insects and small reptiles (Fry and Fry 1999, del Hoyo et al. 2001). Breeding has been recorded in March-April (Fry and Fry 1999).

Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 4.5
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The burgeoning human population on Java brings with it intense pressure on natural resources, one aspect of which has been a massive reduction in forest cover, particularly in the lowlands. This threat continues in the form of conversion to agriculture, development and uncontrolled fire, even within protected areas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded within Gunung Halimun National Park, Java (D. L. Yong in litt. 2013).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Urgently clarify its current distribution and population status, making the species a key target during surveys, and increasing the focus on hill forest and lower montane areas. As and when extant populations are found, research its range and ecological requirements. Lobby for effective management of existing protected areas and for the expansion of the protected area network.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2015. Alcedo euryzona. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22726971A79569756. . Downloaded on 29 November 2015.
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