Actenoides bougainvillei 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Coraciiformes Alcedinidae

Scientific Name: Actenoides bougainvillei
Species Authority: (Rothschild, 1904)
Common Name(s):
English Bougainville Moustached Kingfisher, Moustached Kingfisher
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes:

Actenoides bougainvillei and A. excelsus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as A. bougainvillei following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Identification information: 27 cm. Beautiful but very cryptic forest kingfisher. Very few sightings or specimens. Largely rufous with blue wings, rump and tail with distinctive blue moustachial and eye-stripes and red bill. Similar spp. A. excelsus (formerly included with this species) has black rather than blue moustacial and postocular stripes and a much darker greenish black mantle. Sacred Kingfisher Todiramphus sancta has paler buff underparts and collar. Variable Kingfisher Ceyx lepidus is much smaller. Voice Calls before dawn and after dusk: a loud, ringing series of ko-ko-ko... notes.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-07-24
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Bishop, K., Dutson, G. & Gibbs, D.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Derhé, M., Dutson, G., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Stattersfield, A., Martin, R, Symes, A. & Taylor, J.
This spectacular species is judged to be Endangered on the basis of a very small estimated population which is suspected to be declining, at least in part of its range. However, further research may reveal it to be more common.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Actenoides bougainvillei is endemic to the island of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea (del Hoyo et al. 2001, Fry and Fry 1999, Dutson 2011). There are a few specimens, the last taken in 1938 (Mayr 1945, Cain and Galbraith 1956), and then no records until the 1980s. It is very unobtrusive and crepuscular and likely to be overlooked unless the call is known. Calls believed to be of this species were heard in 1986 on the edge of lowland swamp-forest near Arawa (Bishop 1987) and a pair was reportedly watched at a nest-hole in the 1980s (K. D. Bishop in litt. 1983).

Countries occurrence:
Papua New Guinea
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:6400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):YesExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):1550
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend Justification:  There are no data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be declining at a slow to moderate rate, owing to habitat degradation.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:250-999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:1Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Likely to be restricted to the interior of montane old-growth forest, with a recent record from 800 m (Dutson 2011), although calls thought to belong to the species have been reported from lowland swamp-forest (Bishop 1987). Very little is known about the species. There is a report of nesting in an arboreal termitarium (Mayr 1945, K. D. Bishop in litt. 1983, del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):6.6
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): As a hole-nesting species, it is potentially threatened by introduced predators (Leary 1991). Lowlands have been partially logged and heavy logging is likely to recommence once the island re-opens to commercial exploitation, however the species is thought most likely to inhabit montane forest.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey the population once possible . Establish a system of community-based conservation areas.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2014. Actenoides bougainvillei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T22726874A40787159. . Downloaded on 27 October 2016.
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