|Scientific Name:||Halcyon smyrnensis (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
Halcyon smyrnensis and H. gularis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as H. smyrnensis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C1; D1 (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
EU27 regional assessment: Not Applicable (NA)
In Europe this species has a small, declining population and is therefore classified as Vulnerable (C1, D1).
The bird is considered vagrant in the EU27 and is assessed as Not Applicable (NA) for this region.
|Range Description:||The species has a predominantly Asian distribution, which just extends into south-eastern Europe, in western and southern Turkey (Woodall and Kirwan 2015). Formally its northernmost breeding locality was Izmir, where the species was described, but has not occurred for many decades in this area (Snow and Perrins 1998, Woodall and Kirwan 2015).|
Native:Azerbaijan; Turkey (Turkey-in-Asia)
Vagrant:Bulgaria; Cyprus; Greece
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 170-260 pairs, which equates to 340-520 mature individuals. The species does not occur in the EU27. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by at least 10% in 11.4 years (three generations). For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species uses a wide variety of habitats including dams, ponds, canals, creeks, swamps, mudflats, farmland, large gardens, roadside trees, light industrial sites and dry deciduous forest. It usually avoids dense forest except for clearings and is less common above 2,000 m (Woodall and Kirwan 2015). Breeding birds have been recorded in April and May in Europe (Kirwan et al. 2008). The species is considered monogamous, but the presence of three birds in some areas suggests possibility of communal breeding. The nest is usually excavated in an earthen bank of a ditch, stream, river, pond or road cutting and can also sometimes be in a termitarium, rock crevice, tree or mud hole. The nest-chamber is normally up to 15–23 cm wide and 13 cm high, at the end of an inclined tunnel 30–150 cm long. Clutches can be between four and seven eggs but usually five or six. The diet is widely variable and includes insects, scorpions, centipedes, snails, crustaceans, earthworms, fish, frogs and toads, lizards, chameleons, snakes, birds, voles, mice and squirrels. It hunts from a perch and will batter prey before swallowing it. Many populations exhibit partial short-distance migration, with seasonal changes in abundance, probably involving mostly juveniles. Vagrants have been recorded in Greece, Cyprus and the former U.S.S.R., and individuals may move more than realized (Woodall and Kirwan 2015).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||3.8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Little is known about the threats facing this species in Europe. The small population in Turkey is not widely distributed, with 75% of birds concentrated in five localities. This makes the species vulnerable to any threats (van den Berk and Kasparek 1988). Habitat degradation from factors such as irrigation, overgrazing, dam construction and erosion as well as are recorded in areas where the species in present (Ozturk et al. 2012) and may be a threat to this species. The use of pesticides may also be a problem (Ozturk et al. 2012).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are no known conservation measures in place for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Due to the restricted range of this species in Europe important sites should be protected, including legislation to guard them from development. Research into the species's ecology and habitat needs should be undertaken to inform future conservation measures and help assess potential threats and their impacts in order to develop appropriate responses.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Halcyon smyrnensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22725846A66722858.Downloaded on 20 June 2018.|
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