|Scientific Name:||Picus viridis|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Symes, A., Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Vagrant:Finland; Gibraltar; Ireland; Malta
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 587,000-1,050,000 pairs, which equates to 1,180,000-2,120,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.95% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1,240,000-2,230,000 mature individuals although further validation of this estimate is needed.|
Trend Justification: The European population trend increased moderately between 1980 and 2013 (EBCC 2015).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species uses a great variety of semi-open habitats. It is confined to larger open sections or clearings in extensively wooded areas, forest edges, copses, parks, orchards and residential areas, usually near mature deciduous trees, but often associated with conifers in mountains and in the north. Laying occurs from early April to June and clutches are usually five to eight eggs. The nest is excavated in dead or soft, living wood in unbroken trees. It feeds predominantly on ants with larger ant species generally preferred. Other insects are also taken, as are earthworms and snails and occasionally reptiles, fruits, berries and seeds. The species is resident, although some local winter movements occur (Winkler and Christie 2015).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5.6|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats to this species are the intensification of agriculture and forestry, and the conversion of pasture to arable land, which considerably reduces ant populations (Winkler and Christie 2015). Intensive forestry has also resulted in the loss of nest-sites (Tucker and Heath 1994). Harsh winter weather can also cause major mortality, effects of which may last for years (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997, Winkler and Christie 2015) and can be exacerbated by the impacts from other threats (Tucker and Heath 1994).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are no known current conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Wide-scale habitat conservation needs to be undertaken to maintain nesting and feeding habitats close to each other within structurally diverse landscapes. Actions should include the conservation of old trees for nesting in woodlands, orchards and villages and the maintenance and restoration of feeding grounds such as small meadows, pastures, orchards and heaths (Tucker and Heath 1994).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Picus viridis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22725022A87292744.Downloaded on 22 June 2017.|
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