Bangsia arcaei 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Thraupidae

Scientific Name: Bangsia arcaei
Species Authority: (Sclater & Salvin, 1869)
Common Name(s):
English Blue-and-gold Tanager
Buthraupis arcaei arcaei Collar and Andrew (1988)
Buthraupis arcaei arcaei Stotz et al. (1996)
Identification information:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Biamonte, E., Criado, J., Sandoval, L., Stiles, F., Sánchez, C., Sánchez, J. & Zook, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Capper, D., O'Brien, A., Taylor, J.
This species has a small range and population, which are both thought to be in decline owing to the clearance and degradation of its habitat. However, neither its range nor its population are considered to be severely fragmented or restricted to few locations. For these reasons, the species is classified as Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
2000 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Bangsia arcaei occurs in three disjunct populations: on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica from extreme south-east Guanacaste to Cartago; in central Bocas del Toro, central Chiriquí, Veraguas, and Coclé, Panama; and in the Cerro Jefe/Cerro Brewster area of east Panamá province and extreme west San Blas, Panama (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989, Isler and Isler 1999). It has also been reported from the Serranía del Darién in Colombia (per Donegan et al. 2011, O. Cortes in litt. 2011). Its range probably includes the serranías de San Blas and del Darién in Panama (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989), the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999), and contiguous mountains in west Panama, but it has yet to be recorded in these areas (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989, Stiles and Skutch 1989, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). The population estimate for Costa Rican Important Bird Areas is 2,500-3,900 mature individuals (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007, Sánchez et al. 2009), implying that there are fewer than 10,000 mature individuals in total.

Countries occurrence:
Colombia; Costa Rica; Panama
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 8900
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 300
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population estimate for Costa Rican Important Bird Areas is 2,500-3,900 mature individuals (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007, Sánchez et al. 2009), implying that there are fewer than 10,000 mature individuals in total, thus the population is placed in the band for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, probably equivalent to a total population of 3,700-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  A slow to moderate and on-going population decline is suspected based on rates of habitat loss within the species's range.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found in lowland and montane evergreen forest, forest edges and gaps at elevations of 300-1,500 m, but mostly at 700-1,050 m (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989, Stiles and Skutch 1989). It typically forages in the canopy, feeding on fruit, insects and spiders, and occasionally extracting nectar by removing and damaging flowers (Isler and Isler 1999). It has been observed to nest in moss clumps. Breeding has been noted in April in Costa Rica and July in Panama (Isler and Isler 1999).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 3.7
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There has been widespread destruction of its foothill and montane forests, primarily as a result of burning, logging and other conversion leading to intensive agricultural use (Dinerstein et al. 1995), and intact habitat is now patchy (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). The species's range in Costa Rica is now regarded as fairly well protected (Unión de Ornitólogos de Costa Rica in litt. 2011). However, areas around Cerro Jefe in Panama have been partially deforested despite being in national parks (Dinerstein et al. 1995). The Caribbean slope in Panama was still extensively forested in the mid-1990s (Harcourt and Sayer 1996); however, since 2000, severe deforestation is reported to have been taking place within perhaps half of the species's range in Panama and has now reached the continental divide in some areas (G. Angehr in litt. 2011). In addition, this species's narrow altitudinal range is likely to render it susceptible to the effects of projected climate change (G. Angehr in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in several protected areas.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to assess its total population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation throughout its range. Increase the area of suitable habitat with protected status. Carry out further research into the species's ecology.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Bangsia arcaei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22722558A39982779. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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