Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Parulidae

Scientific Name: Xenoligea montana
Species Authority: (Chapman, 1917)
Common Name(s):
English White-winged Warbler, White-winged Ground-warbler
Identification information: 14.5 cm. Chunky, heavy billed, olive denizen of dense cloud-forest. Olive upperparts contrast with grey head. White subloral spot and slightly split white eye-ring. Whitish underparts and extensive white in primaries. Grey tail with white outer rectrices. Heavy black bill and dark eye. Juvenile undescribed. Similar spp Green-tailed Warbler Microligea palustris is duller, less contrasting, and lacks white subloral spot and white in primaries. Voice Song is short accelerating series of squeaky notes. Call is thin tseep and low chattering. Hints Best located by call in dense understorey. Usually seen in pairs, but sometimes with mixed-species flocks.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Bayard, P. & Fernandez, E.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Fisher, S., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D.
This species is considered Vulnerable because it has a small and severely fragmented range and population, which has undergone a considerable historic decline and presumably continues to decline rapidly as a result of habitat loss.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2005 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Xenoligea montana is known from the Massifs de la Hotte and de la Selle, Haiti, and the Sierras de Baoruco and de Neiba, and the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. The population size has been estimated to be approximately 3,300 adults (Maclean 2004). It is extremely threatened in Haiti, and may already have been extirpated from much of the country, including the Massif de la Selle (Raffaele et al. 1998, Dávalos and Brooks 2001), but there are recent records from Pic Macaya National Park where it is fairly common in wet karst limestone forest (P. Bayard and E. Fernandez in litt. 2003, Latta et al. 2006). In the Dominican Republic, it is still locally common, but is presumably declining.

Countries occurrence:
Dominican Republic; Haiti
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 6500
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 11-100
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1200
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  There are no new data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be declining, since habitat loss is on-going.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1500-7000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits dense stands of montane broadleaved vegetation including low trees, open thickets and humid shrubbery, and sometimes pines. It occurs between 875 and 2,000 m, but mostly at 1,300-1,800 m in moist montane forest of broadleaf or mixed broadleaf and pines (Latta et al. 2006). It forages for insects and seeds in low, dense vegetation and is particularly associated with the Florida trema Trema micrantha, which produces one of its favourite fruits (Raffaele et al. 1998, Latta et al. 2006). It probably nests on or near the ground in April-May (Curson et al. 1994).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 3.9
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss for agriculture and timber is probably the principal threat since large areas of montane growth have been cleared on Hispaniola. Predation of nests by introduced mongooses may have contributed to this species's decline (Curson et al. 1994).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in a number of protected areas including Pic Macaya and (at least formerly) La Visite National Parks, Haiti, as well as Sierra de Baoruco and Armando Bermudez National Parks, the Dominican Republic.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess the status of the population, especially in Haiti (Ottenwalder 1992c). Determine its precise habitat requirements and the status of this habitat (Ottenwalder 1992c). Ensure that the protected-areas network adequately protects this species (Ottenwalder 1992c). Enforce the protection afforded to the species habitat by Sierra de Baoruco National Park.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Xenoligea montana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22722076A39875446. . Downloaded on 10 October 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided