|Scientific Name:||Emberiza rustica Pallas, 1776|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., van Kleunen, A., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
EU27 regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)
This species underwent catastrophic declines in the western part of the large global breeding range during the latter part of the 20th century, and declines are estimated to have continued at a rapid rate over the past three generations, reaching an estimated 30-49%. It is therefore classified as Vulnerable (A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd) in both Europe and the EU27.
|Range Description:||The species breeds across the entire European boreal zone (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997) in central and northern Fennoscandia and European Russia (Copete and Garcia 2014). Since 1895, its breeding range has extended west into Finland (in the 1910s and 1920s), Sweden (up to 1960), Norway (in the 1960s and 1970s), Estonia (first breeding in 1979) and Latvia (first breeding in 1985) (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).|
Native:Estonia; Finland; Latvia; Norway; Russian Federation (European Russia); Sweden
Vagrant:Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Croatia; Denmark; France; Germany; Greece; Iceland; Italy; Malta; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Serbia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Turkey; United Kingdom
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 681,000-831,000 pairs, which equates to 1,360,000-1,660,000 mature individuals. The population in the EU27 is estimated at 181,000-331,000 pairs, which equates to 362,000-662,000 mature individuals. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 30-49% in 10.8 years (three generations). For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||In the Scandinavian part of its range this species prefers mires dominated by spruce and birch and an undergrowth of shrubs and grasses. It also inhabits damp coniferous forests and birch dominated heaths interspersed with juniper. It may benefit from the construction of dams by beavers (Hagemeijer & Blair 1997, Copete and Garcia 2014, Dale & Hansen 2013). The breeding season starts late, ends May to early June. The nest is usually placed on the ground often near water, among grassy vegetation. Occasionally it is built in a low tree. The clutch, usually four to six eggs, is incubated by both the male and female. The chicks hatch after 11–13 days. They are fed by both parents and leave the nest after 7–10 days. Then they are fed by the parents for another 15 days before they are able to fly. The species is migratory; they leave the breeding grounds between late July and mid-September to travel to the wintering grounds in Asia. During the breeding season it mostly feeds on seeds and a wide variety of invertebrate species (Copete and Garcia 2014).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||3.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The numbers of this species have declined in the Scandinavian part of its range since 1980. This decline is associated with forest logging and draining of swamps leading to habitat degradation or even destruction. However the habitat of the species in Norway where it has also declined has remained rather unchanged (Dale & Hansen 2013). It is suggested that habitat destruction and hunting and trapping, taking place in the east Asian wintering grounds, may be the cause of the species's decline in Norway.|
Conservation Actions Underway
There are currently no known conservation measures for this species.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct research into the causes of the species decline in its breeding area and in particular its non-breeding area.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Emberiza rustica. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22720960A60293856.Downloaded on 19 August 2018.|
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