|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Pratt, T., VanderWerf, E., Woodworth, B. & Lepson, J.
||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Derhé, M., Isherwood, I., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T. & Symes, A.
This species has not been recorded with certainty on Kaua'i since 1989 nor on Hawai'i since 1987, and recent searches specifically for it have failed. It may have been driven extinct by habitat loss, introduced rats, and in particular from malaria from introduced mosquitoes. However, it cannot yet be presumed to be Extinct until all potential areas have been surveyed, particularly in Ka`u, Waiakea, and Pu`u Maka`ala, and recent unconfirmed reports have been followed up by systematic searches. Any remaining population is likely to be tiny, and for these reasons it is treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2009 – Critically Endangered (CR) –
- 2008 – Critically Endangered (CR) –
- 2004 – Critically Endangered (CR) –
- 2000 – Critically Endangered (CR) –
- 1996 – Critically Endangered (CR) –
- 1994 – Critically Endangered (CR) –
- 1988 – Threatened (T) –
|Range Description:||Psittirostra psittacea was originally widespread in the Hawaiian Islands (USA), but was extirpated from O`ahu, Maui, Moloka`i and then Lana`i between 1899 and 1931 (Snetsinger et al. 1998). On Kaua`i, it survived in the Alaka`i Wilderness Preserve into the mid-1970s, with c.62 birds being present during 1968-1973 (USFWS 1983), but only a few in 1981 (Scott et al. 1986), two in 1989 and none since. On Hawai`i, several populations were present in the early 1980s, with c.394 estimated during 1976-1983 (Scott et al. 1986) but, in 1984, a lava-flow from Mauna Loa passed through the Upper Waiakea Forest Reserve, the species's stronghold (Scott et al. 1986, Snetsinger et al. 1998), and the last confirmed sighting was in 1987 (Snetsinger et al. 1998). However, since 1995 there have been unconfirmed reports from Koai`e Stream, Alaka`i (Kaua`i) and Pu`u Maka`ala Natural Area Reserve and Kapapala-Ka`u Forest Reserve (Hawai`i) (Snetsinger et al. 1998, J. Lepson in litt. 1999). The prognosis is poor, especially given the species's preference for lower elevations where habitat loss and the impacts of introduced disease and predators have been most severe, but it cannot yet be presumed to be Extinct until the last areas have been intensively surveyed (S. Fretz, E. Vanderwerf, R. Camp and M. Gorresen in litt. 2003). Any remaining population is likely to be tiny. |
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||180|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||3||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||800|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1900|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|