||Spinus cucullatus (Swainson, 1820)
||Cardenalito, Lúgano Cardenalito, Lúgano Encapuchado
Carduelis cucullata Swainson, 1820
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||Spinus cucullatus (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Carduelis and listed as C. cucullata following AOU (1998 and supplements); SACC (2005 and updates); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).
||10 cm. Small, red-and-black finch. Male red with black head, bib and tail. Black wings with broad red bar across flight feathers. Female mainly brown, but more dusky on wings and tail. Red rump, wing-bars and primary bases. Red wash to flanks, but otherwise greyish below. Voice Song a twittering series of trills and chatters. Raspy jut-jut call.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Clinton Eitniear, J. & Sharpe, C J, Hansen, P.
||Gilroy, J., Harding, M., Pople, R., Sharpe, C.J., Wheatley, H.
This species qualifies as Endangered because it is undergoing a very rapid population decline as a result of trapping for the cagebird trade (Collar et al. 1992). Its population is now severely fragmented in much of its historic range, although the recent discovery of a new population in Guyana has resulted in a revision of its overall population size.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Endangered (EN)
- 2012 – Endangered (EN)
- 2008 – Endangered (EN)
- 2004 – Endangered (EN)
- 2000 – Endangered (EN)
- 1996 – Endangered (EN)
- 1994 – Endangered (EN)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||Spinus cucullatus was common in the early 20th century but has become extremely rare in a now fragmented range. It once occurred throughout the foothills of northern Venezuela (15 states), but recent sightings are restricted to just seven states (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995, C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2000, Rojas-Suárez et al. 2008). It has disappeared from Trinidad, where it was never anything other than rare, and a small population persists in Norte de Santander, Colombia, where a record in February 2000 (López-Lanús 2000) was apparently the first since 1986. A population in Puerto Rico (to USA), derived from escaped cage-birds, has undergone a marked decline and there are very few recent records (J. Clinton-Eitniear in litt. 2000, R. Perez Rivera per J. Clinton-Eitniear in litt. 2000). In 2000, a new population was discovered in southwestern Guyana, c.950 km from the nearest Venezuelan locality, is estimated to number in the low hundreds to low thousands (Robbins et al. 2003, Janki, M. in litt. 2005). The remaining population elsewhere has been estimated in the high hundreds or low thousands, but the paucity of recent records indicates that this may be an overestimate. In Venezuela its distribution and population are estimated to be less than 20% of the original sizes (Rojas-Suárez et al. 2008).|
Colombia; Guyana; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Trinidad and Tobago
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||611000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||6-10||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||180|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1300|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A previous estimate of a population in the low thousands in Guyana, based on the observation of 127 individuals, may be too high, with the actual population potentially numbering in the low hundreds (M. Janki in litt. 2005). The Venezuelan population is likely to be 250-1,000 individuals, although there are more optimistic estimates of up to 4,000 birds. The total population is best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: There is no new quantitative information on population size and trend, but this species's prevalence in the illegal wild bird trade, together with the rarity of sightings in the wild, suggest a very rapid and continuing population decline.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||1500-7000||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||Yes|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||1-89|