Crithagra xantholaema 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Fringillidae

Scientific Name: Crithagra xantholaema (Salvadori, 1896)
Common Name(s):
English Salvadori's Seedeater, Salvadori's Serin
French Serin de Salvadori
Serinus xantholaemus Salvadori, 1896
Serinus xantholaema xantholaema BirdLife International (2000)
Serinus xantholaema xantholaema Collar et al. (1994)
Serinus xantholaema xantholaema Collar and Andrew (1988)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Identification information: 11 cm. Small, greyish canary with black collar. This uniformly drab, greyish brown canary has a bright yellow throat with a thin black breast band which is diagnostic. In flight shows a greenish yellow rump. Very often the black band is very much reduced and only shows a black spot on sides of breast. Similar spp. Yellow-throated Serin is almost identical to the female of this species and away from known range when seen alone, identification problems will arise. Voice Similar to Yellow-throated Serin. Hints The best known site is alongside the stream that runs from The Sofamor Caves, Ethiopa. Also in dry scrub adjacent to juniper forests near Arero, Ethiopia.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v); C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Ash, J. & Vivero, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Ekstrom, J., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Westrip, J.
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it is believed to have a small population which is declining owing to habitat alteration, mainly through agriculture, as a result of human population growth within its range.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Serinus xantholaemus is known from central Harar, northern Bale and central Sidamo provinces (central Borena zone), Ethiopia. There have been at least 30 reliable records since 1900 (J. S. Ash in litt. 1999), among which post-1970 records have come from Sheik Hussein, Sof Omar, Arero Forest, Anferara Forest and Mankubsa-Weleno Forest, Yavello Wildlife Sanctuary (EWNHS 1996, Vivero Pol 2001, J. Vivero in litt. 2003, Shimelis undated). Although uncommon at presently known sites, it may prove to be fairly widespread and not uncommon in a huge area that is very poorly known in ornithological terms (J. S. Ash in litt. 1999, J. Vivero in litt. 2003).

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:154000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:6-10Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):1000
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is placed in the range bracket for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on information from J. Vivero (in litt. 2003). This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The species's population is suspected to be in decline owing to habitat destruction and degradation, despite the species's apparent tolerance of disturbance by humans and cattle (J. Vivero in litt. 2003), which requires further research. The likely rate of decline has not been quantified.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:2500-9999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:1Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species seems to favour scrubby vegetation (1,000-1,500 m), and has been recorded in Acacia-Commiphora woodland (EWNHS 1996) and juniper Juniperus woodland (including scrubby and degraded areas) (Shimelis undated). It feeds on the ground in groups up to 6 individuals, presumably on seeds, but also recorded feeding on flowers and buds (Vivero Pol 2001, Clement and Bonan 2016). No breeding information is availble, but its breeding season may be September-December (Clement and Bonan 2016).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):3.8
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): At nearly all sites, an increasing human population is leading to the expansion of subsistence agriculture into previously uncultivated wooded habitats (EWNHS 1996, Shimelis undated). Cutting of trees and bushes (for fuel and building wood) and intense grazing also occur at a number of sites (Shimelis undated). However, it is open to question to what extent disturbance as a result of high cattle and human pressure may affect the species, considering its relative tolerance to them (J. Vivero in litt. 2003). While the species's tolerance of such habitat changes is unknown, its population may well be declining. At Anferera, opencast gold-mining is a potential threat (EWNHS 1996), as is hotel construction at Sof Omar and Sheik Hussein (related to popular shrines there) (J. S. Ash in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Arero Forest, Anferara Forest and Mankubsa-Weleno Forest are protected areas on paper. However, on-the-ground protection is scant (EWNHS 1996).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue surveys to better determine the species's range, population size and trend. Assess possible threats. Determine the species ecological requirements. Investigate the potential for a programme promoting community forestry, soil conservation and watershed management within its range. Assess the potential impacts of habitat alteration and disturbance by cattle and humans and the species's ability to tolerate such processes.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Crithagra xantholaema. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22720132A94658986. . Downloaded on 22 September 2018.
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