Padda oryzivora


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Padda oryzivora
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Java Sparrow
French Padda de Java, Spermète de Java
Lonchura oryzivora SACC (2005)
Lonchura oryzivora oryzivora Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993)
Lonchura oryzivora oryzivora Christidis and Boles (1994)
Lonchura oryzivora oryzivora Christidis and Boles (2008)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2bde+3bde+4bde ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Brickle, N.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Khwaja, N., Taylor, J.
The popularity of this finch as a cage-bird has resulted in intense trapping activity, which is inferred to be causing rapid declines in the population. Unless stringent regulations are enforced, these declines are likely to continue, and as such it is listed as Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Padda oryzivora is a native endemic of the islands of Java, Bali, and probably Madura, Indonesia, although it has been widely introduced, with feral populations now established in many parts of the world. It was formerly widespread and abundant in its native range, but numbers have crashed disastrously. It can now be difficult to find, particularly on Java (N. Brickle in litt. 2012); a recent survey looked at 64 former locations and located only 109 individuals at 17 sites (Muchtar and Nurwatha 2001). The majority of documented recent records derive from east Java and Bali. Feral populations (in Indonesia at least) have also apparently declined precipitously. Information from elsewhere is insufficient to estimate its status as a feral species, and all conservation efforts should focus on its original native range.

Brunei Darussalam; Christmas Island; Fiji; Malaysia; Mexico; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Sri Lanka; United States
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number c.2,500-9,999 individuals (Population estimate derived from analysis of recent records and surveys detailed in BirdLife International 2001). This estimate equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 introduced breeding pairs in China; < c.100 introduced breeding pairs in Taiwan and < c.10,000 introduced breeding pairs in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is usually a lowland species, chiefly found below 500 m but occurring locally up to 1,500 m. It has been recorded in many habitats, including towns and villages (where it was formerly one of the most common species), cultivated land (particularly rice-growing areas), grassland, open woodland, tree savanna, beach forest and even mangroves. It is gregarious, especially outside the breeding season. Post-breeding flocks appear to make substantial short-distance movements in response to local food supplies.

Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Trapping for the domestic and international cage-bird trade has probably been occurring for centuries, peaking in the 1960s and 1970s, and is the main cause of the decline. Its flocking tendency, particularly at roost sites, renders it especially susceptible to mass trapping. Ironically, even feral populations, originally introduced through trade, have subsequently been decimated for the same reason. Historically, it was regarded as a rice crop-pest, and consequently persecuted. Hunting for local consumption, possibly increased use of pesticides, and competition with the ecologically similar Tree Sparrow Passer montanus, are additional threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. An embargo was placed on the capture quota for Java and Bali in 1995.  The species is bred widely in captivity but is heavily trapped, almost to extinction within the natural range.  It occurs in only a very few protected areas, with recent records from only four: Cikepuh Wildlife Reserve, Baluran and Meru Betiri National Parks on Java, and Bali Barat National Park on Bali.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Investigate the relative importance of current threats (excessive trade, persecution, pesticides, competition). Promote strict enforcement of trade restrictions in wild birds, and devise means of meeting market demands from captive breeding. Develop and initiate programmes to protect remaining populations.

Citation: BirdLife International 2012. Padda oryzivora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 28 March 2015.
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