Prunella modularis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Prunellidae

Scientific Name: Prunella modularis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Dunnock, Hedge Accentor, Hedge Sparrow
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A., Ashpole, J
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, European Russia); Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
New Zealand
Faroe Islands; Iceland; Kuwait; Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:12700000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 12,700,000-21,800,000 pairs, which equates to 25,400,000-43,500,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend Justification:  In Europe the overall trend for 1980-2013 was a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:25000000-43999999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in a wide variety of habitats across its range. It breeds in scrub and stunted woodland in alpine, subarctic and tundra habitats in the north and east of the range. In the north of the range it uses coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, particularly alongside water. In the west of the range (from the U.K., Belgium and western Germany south to Iberia) it is mainly found in lowlands, using managed woodland with thick understorey, hedges and farm woodland, suburban and urban gardens, parks, and any other habitat with scrubby vegetation. It breeds from March to July across much of the range, whilst in Russia it breeds from May to August. The nest is a cup of twigs, stems, roots, grass and moss, lined with hair, wool and sometimes feathers, located above the ground in a bush, hedge or tree. It lays three to six eggs. It feeds mainly on arthropods but supplements its diet with seeds in the winter (Hatchwell 2016). In western Europe the species is resident; in western-central Europe it is partially migratory, making altitudinal movements in montane areas; in Fennoscandia and central Europe it is fully migratory (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.6
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The decline in the U.K. is thought to be due to changing farming practices which has allowed other passerines to force this species into more marginal sites (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). However no specific factor has been found for these local declines (Hatchwell 2016).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. The species has been listed as ‘amber’ on the U.K. national red list (Hatchwell 2016).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Research should look into the threats in areas where the species is declining and assess their impact.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Prunella modularis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22718651A88047392. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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