Anthus campestris 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Motacillidae

Scientific Name: Anthus campestris (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Tawny Pipit
French Pipit rousseline
Taxonomic Source(s): Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Chad; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Guinea-Bissau; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation (Central Asian Russia, Eastern Asian Russia, European Russia); San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Sudan; Spain; Sudan; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Yemen
Bhutan; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Côte d'Ivoire; Iceland; Ireland; Liberia; Liechtenstein; Nepal; Norway; Sri Lanka; Togo
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:22100000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):3600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 909,000-1,720,000 pairs, which equates to 1,820,000-3,440,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.40% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 4,550,000-8,600,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. In Europe, trends since 1991 are uncertain (EBCC 2015).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:4000000-8999999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in open dry habitats, from sand dunes, sandy heaths, dry grassland and clear-felled areas to artificial habitats such as gravel pits, steppe and semi-deserts in central and eastern parts of the range. It favours areas with dwarf shrubs and low-growing trees for songposts. The breeding season is from mid-April to mid-August; although it is later in northern Europe, beginning in mid-June in Sweden and earlier in North Africa.

It is monogamous and the nest is a cup of grass stems, leaves and roots, lined with finer plant material and hair and built in a scrape or a hollow on the ground or in a tuft of grass. Usually four to five eggs are laid. The diet is mainly insects, although other invertebrates and seeds are also taken, as well as rarely small vertebrates (Tyler and Christie 2016). The species is almost wholly migratory with western populations generally wintering in the Sahel zone in sub-Saharan Africa and eastern populations generally moving to the Arabian Peninsula and southern Asia, east to the north-west Indian subcontinent (Tyler and Christie 2016).
Systems:Terrestrial; Marine
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):3.7
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In western and central Europe the species is threatened by habitat loss as a result of afforestation of open habitats, scrub encroachment, intensification of agriculture (Tyler and Christie 2016) and eutrophication of cultivated land (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). In addition the use of pesticides may also be a threat through the reduction of food availability (Tucker and Heath 1994). Climate change may also have an impact on this species (Tyler and Christie 2016).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. EU Birds Directive Annex I. In Sweden, a national species action plan was published in 2001 (Löfgren and Elfström 2001).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Low-intensity grazing practices should be maintained in order to restrict the development of dense vegetation cover which is unsuitable for this species. In addition the abandonment of marginal crops in flat areas and the conversion of these sites to sheep grazing could benefit this species. Conversion of such areas to forestry plantation should be avoided. Research should be undertaken on the causes of declines in areas where habitat loss is not a significant threat (Tucker and Heath 1994). Further fieldwork is needed to ascertain whether the species breeds in the Afrotropics (Tyler and Christie 2016).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Anthus campestris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22718501A88125406. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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