Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Motacillidae

Scientific Name: Motacilla citreola
Species Authority: Pallas, 1776
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Citrine Wagtail
French Bergeronnette citrine
Taxonomic Source(s): Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Taxonomic Notes: Motacilla citreola (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was split by Pavlova et al. (2003) into two separate species M. citreola and M. werae, nested within M. flava. The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group find this treatment counter-intuitive and follow the treatment of Tyler (2004) in recognising flava as one large polytypic species and citreola as one small polytypic species pending a more coherent and complete analysis of the molecular and morphological evidence.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Afghanistan; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; China; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; Germany; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lithuania; Mongolia; Myanmar; Nepal; Oman; Pakistan; Poland; Qatar; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Slovakia; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United States; Uzbekistan; Yemen
Australia; Belgium; Bhutan; Bulgaria; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Ethiopia; France; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Korea, Republic of; Lebanon; Malawi; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Romania; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Singapore; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Taiwan, Province of China; United Kingdom; Viet Nam
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 4420000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 4600
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 210,000-520,000 breeding pairs, equating to 630,000-1,560,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 2,630,000-31,200,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
For further information about this species, see 22718379_motacilla_citreola.pdf.
A PDF viewer such as Adobe Reader is required.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Motacilla citreola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22718379A38523259. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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