|Scientific Name:||Motacilla citreola|
|Species Authority:||Pallas, 1776|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.|
Motacilla citreola (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was split by Pavlova et al. (2003) into two separate species M. citreola and M. werae, nested within M. flava.
The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group find this treatment counter-intuitive and follow the treatment of Tyler (2004) in recognising flava as one large polytypic species and citreola as one small polytypic species pending a more coherent and complete analysis of the molecular and morphological evidence.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Native:Afghanistan; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; China; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; Germany; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lithuania; Mongolia; Myanmar; Nepal; Oman; Pakistan; Poland; Qatar; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Slovakia; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Yemen
Vagrant:Australia; Belgium; Bhutan; Bulgaria; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Ethiopia; France; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Korea, Republic of; Lebanon; Malawi; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Romania; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Singapore; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Taiwan, Province of China; United Kingdom; United States; Viet Nam
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||4420000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||4600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 210,000-520,000 breeding pairs, equating to 630,000-1,560,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 2,630,000-31,200,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).
Trend Justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Motacilla citreola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22718379A67000396. . Downloaded on 07 February 2016.|
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