|Scientific Name:||Motacilla citreola|
|Species Authority:||Pallas, 1776|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Symes, A., Ashpole, J|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Afghanistan; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; China; Egypt; Estonia; Finland; Germany; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lithuania; Mongolia; Myanmar; Nepal; Oman; Pakistan; Poland; Qatar; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Slovakia; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; Uzbekistan; Yemen
Vagrant:Australia; Belgium; Bhutan; Bulgaria; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Ethiopia; France; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Korea, Republic of; Lebanon; Malawi; Montenegro; Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Romania; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Seychelles; Singapore; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Taiwan, Province of China; United Kingdom; United States; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 162,000-373,000 pairs, which equates to 323,000-746,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 2,150,000-4,980,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and < c.1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).|
Trend Justification: The European population is estimated to be increasing (BirdLife International 2015). In the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats the overall population is therefore estimated to be increasing.
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occupies marshes, the edges of lakes, willow (Salix) thickets and wet rough grassland in tundra, also areas of willow bushes on mountain meadows and sometimes in fields near villages. It breeds from April to June with breeding beginning later in the north. The nest is a cup of moss and plant leaves and stems, lined with hair, wool and feathers and sited on the ground in grassy vegetation. Typically it lays three to six eggs. The diet includes a wide variety of invertebrates, often aquatic, and their larvae. The species is migratory, wintering in the Indian subcontinent (Tyler and Kirwan 2016).|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.7|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||There are currently no known significant threats to this species.|
Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Further research focusing on the status and threats to the European populations would help inform future conservation measures.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Motacilla citreola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22718379A88052549.Downloaded on 26 February 2017.|
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