|Scientific Name:||Motacilla alba|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Motacilla alba and M. lugens (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) have been lumped into M. alba following AOU (2005). Motacilla alba (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was split by Sangster et al. (1998) into M. alba, M. alboides, M. baicalensis, M. leucopsis, M. ocularis, M. personata and M. subpersonata but this treatment is not followed by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group because no vocal, morphological or phylogenetic evidence is provided by Sangster et al. (1998) and Alström et al. (2003) notes that all contiguously distributed subspecies of M. alba interbreed. Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993) and Sangster et al. (1998) also split M. lugens from M. alba but these taxa are also lumped following AOU (2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A. & Temple, H.|
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Native:Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Benin; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Cambodia; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Gambia; Georgia; Germany; Ghana; Gibraltar; Greece; Greenland; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macao; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malaysia; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Myanmar; Nepal; Netherlands; Niger; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Sierra Leone; Singapore; Slovakia; Slovenia; Somalia; South Sudan; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Georgia); Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Western Sahara; Yemen
Vagrant:Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Burundi; Canada; Comoros; Gabon; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Seychelles; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago
Present - origin uncertain:Guam; Rwanda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||24800000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||5000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Rich et al. (2004) estimated the global population to number 200,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 13000000-26000000 breeding pairs, equating to 39000000-78000000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 163000000-1560000000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend Justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2011 was stable, based on provisional data for 27 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2014. Motacilla alba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T22718348A62563847. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.|