Pycnonotus priocephalus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Pycnonotidae

Scientific Name: Pycnonotus priocephalus
Species Authority: (Jerdon, 1839)
Common Name(s):
English Grey-headed Bulbul

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Balakrishnan, P. & Praveen, J.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J., Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened as it is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline owing to forest clearance throughout its range. Surveys are needed to accurately quantify its population size and establish population trends.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2010 Near Threatened (NT)
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1988 Near Threatened (NT)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Pycnonotus priocephalus is found in the Western Ghats and Palni Hills in south-west India (del Hoyo et al. 2005). The species is patchily distributed, but it is thought to be not uncommon in suitable habitat (del Hoyo et al. 2005, Balakrishnan 2007, J. Praveen in litt. 2010). Suitable habitat at lower habitats has largely been cleared, and continued clearance is suspected to be causing on-going population declines (del Hoyo et al. 2005, Balakrishnan 2007).

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 99300
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 700
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1400
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but the population is thought to occur at low densities in suitable habitat which is patchily distributed throughout its range.

Trend Justification:  Habitat destruction is thought to be causing moderately rapid population declines (Balakrishnan 2007).

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species uses two distinct elevation zones during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. During the breeding season, individuals are restricted to the mid-elevation evergreen forests (700-1,400 m). During the non-breeding season, it is present in lower altitude moist deciduous and scrub forests. Reed-bamboos (Ochlandra spp.) are thought to be an important nesting plant, and it is not seen in shola forests and altered habitats such as plantations, suggesting that it is a habitat specialist. Individuals show local migration during breeding and non-breeding seasons in response to the variation in fruit abundance and adverse climatic conditions (Balakrishnan 2007). It breeds from March to July and the female lays a clutch of one or two eggs. Its diet consists of berries and other fruit, and also a small proportion of insects. It forages at all levels of forest and in tall vine-laden shrubs, often singly or in pairs, but sometimes in groups of four to eight individuals (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 2.7
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The principal threat to the species is habitat loss and degradation as forest is converted into plantations, reservoirs, crops and human settlements (del Hoyo et al. 2005, Balakrishnan 2007). Although there are no reliable estimates of the total forest loss for the Western Ghats, several regional studies using satellite data suggest that only about 20% of the natural forest vegetation remains and is in a highly fragmented state (Balakrishnan 2007). Extensive extraction of reed-bamboos, used in pulp and paper industry and traditional cottage industries such as basket and mat-weaving, is thought to be an important factor causing population decline (Balakrishnan 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded from about 33 Important Bird Areas (IBAs); however, the majority of them are unprotected non-breeding sites with various levels of degradation (Balakrishnan 2007). It is present in nearly all wildlife sanctuaries and forest reserves in Kerala (J. Praveen in litt. 2010).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Instigate the formation and amalgamation of protected areas throughout its range to ensure that enough suitable habitat is protected (Balakrishnan 2007). Ensure effective legal protection of protected areas (Balakrishnan 2007). Prevent the extensive extraction of reed-bamboos (Ochlandra spp.) from lower altitudes, especially during the breeding season (Balakrishnan 2007). Accurately assess the current population size and establish regular surveys to quantify population trends.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Pycnonotus priocephalus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22712619A38153332. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.
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