||Pycnonotus zeylanicus (Gmelin, 1789)
||Straw-headed Bulbul, Straw-crowned Bulbul
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||29 cm. Large bulbul with golden-yellowish crown and cheeks. Blackish eye and submoustachial stripes, white throat and fine, whitish streaks on upperparts and breast. Juvenile has duller, browner head. Voice Loud, rich, melodious, warbling song. Hints Listen for song in marshes and along forested rivers.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Brickle, N., van Balen, B., Jihad, Eaton, J., Chng, S. & Miller, A.
||Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J. & Martin, R
This species is declining very rapidly across its range as a result of relentless trapping of wild birds for the cage-bird trade, compounded by habitat loss within its rather specific habitat type. The population is now estimated to have been reduced to such a degree that it is believed to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals, and that it has become fragmented to the point that each subpopulation is unlikely to support more than 250 mature individuals. For these reasons the species is evaluated as Endangered.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Near Threatened (NT)
|Range Description:||Pycnonotus zeylanicus is known from Tenasserim, Myanmar (status unknown), south through Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia and Singapore to Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan, Indonesia, Brunei and Sabah and Sarawak (Malaysia) (BirdLife International 2001). It was widespread, common, and even locally abundant across much of this range, until as recently as three decades ago. However, it is thought to be extinct in Thailand, Java, and is likely to be so in Sumatra (N. Brickle in litt. 2007, Eaton et al. 2015). In Kalimantan, it is largely confined to areas furthest from human habitation, from where trappers still seem to obtain individuals (Brickle et al. 2010). It may only remain in moderately healthy numbers in Taman Negara National Park in peninsular Malaysia (Eaton in litt. 2016). A population derived from escaped or released individuals numbered around 140 in Singapore in 2001, but even here attempts are made to capture the birds (Anon. 2006).|
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Singapore
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||2290000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A revised population estimate based on an appraisal of the areas where populations are currently persisting, principally large protected areas in Malaysia and the small population in Singapore, places the number in the band 1,000-2,499 individuals, considered to represent 667-1,667 mature individuals, rounded to 600-1,700 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: Persecution for the pet trade and habitat destruction continue to threaten populations across the species's range, and these factors are suspected to be driving a rapid and on-going decline. The species has reduced in population to the point that it has now become extinct in Java and Sumatra, and is now only found in the most remote parts of Kalimantan where they are still trapped (Brickle et al. 2010, A. Miller in litt. 2016). There remains a huge demand for the species even in rural areas (A. Miller in litt. 2016). The already high price per individual appears to be continuing to increase, with an average of $483 quoted from west Borneo in 2015/16 (A. Miller in litt. 2016). Extirpation from the wild in Indonesia appears imminent.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||600-1700||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2-100||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|