|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Symes, A.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2014 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2012 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2009 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2008 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2004 – Least Concern (LC) –
- 2000 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc) –
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc) –
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc) –
|Range Description:||There is evidence to suggest that the European population (200,000-510,000 pairs, occupying 50-74% of the global breeding range) has declined by up to 30% over ten years (three generations), but this may reflect shifts in breeding populations, populations in Asia are not thought to be declining and wintering populations in Africa appear to be increasing. |
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; China; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Egypt; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Nepal; Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is.); Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
Argentina; Aruba; Australia; Bahamas; Bermuda; Canada; Cayman Islands; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Fiji; Haiti; Jamaica; Mexico; New Zealand; Puerto Rico; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Tonga; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States (Georgia - Native); Virgin Islands, U.S.
Bhutan; Cape Verde; Greenland; Korea, Republic of; Maldives; Myanmar; Panama; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Yemen
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||8870000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||2000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|