Sturnus vulgaris


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Sturnus vulgaris
Species Authority: Linnaeus, 1758
Common Name(s):
English Common Starling, Starling, European Starling
French Etourneau sansonnet

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2014-07-24
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J. & Symes, A.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
2012 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Argentina; Armenia (Armenia); Aruba; Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahamas; Bahrain; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; Cayman Islands; China; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Dominican Republic; Egypt; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Haiti; Hong Kong; Hungary; Iceland; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Mexico; Moldova; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Nepal; Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is.); Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Turks and Caicos Islands; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan
Australia; Fiji; New Zealand; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Tonga; United States (Georgia - Native)
Bermuda; Bhutan; Cape Verde; Greenland; Korea, Republic of; Maldives; Myanmar; Panama; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, U.S.; Yemen
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population is estimated to number > c.310,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population estimates include: < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea and < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
For further information about this species, see 22710886_sturnus_vulgaris.pdf.
A PDF viewer such as Adobe Reader is required.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Systems: Terrestrial; Marine

Citation: BirdLife International 2014. Sturnus vulgaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 01 September 2015.
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