Cochoa azurea 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Turdidae

Scientific Name: Cochoa azurea
Species Authority: (Temminck, 1824)
Common Name(s):
English Javan Cochoa
Identification information: 23 cm. Medium-sized, thrush-like bird of forest canopy. Male has silky-blue upperparts including sides of head, wings and tail. Black underparts, iris, bill and legs. Female duller blue above and dark brown below. Immature dull blue above with brown wing-coverts, fawn below, speckled dark brown. Similar spp. Male Sunda Whistling-thrush Myophonus glaucinus generally frequents lower storey of forest, is much plumper and uniform blue. Voice Thin high-pitched whistle siiiit and more scolding cet-cet-cet in alarm. Hints Scan mid-storey and canopy of forest for occasional short flights made by this species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Brickle, N. & van Balen, B.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Gilroy, J.
This unobtrusive species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small and naturally fragmented range and population, which is likely to be declining owing to habitat loss at the lower fringes of its altitudinal range.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Cochoa azurea is endemic to the mountains of west and central Java, Indonesia, where it is known from the higher peaks within a range spanning from Gunung Halimun to Gunung Slamet. There are recent records from just four localities. It appears to occur at low densities, although it is perhaps more unobtrusive than genuinely rare. Its population is nevertheless likely to be undergoing a steady decline as Javan montane forests become increasingly isolated by deforestation on lower slopes.

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Jawa)
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 8500
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 6-10
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 900
Upper elevation limit (metres): 3000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected to be occurring as a result of habitat loss within the lower altitudinal range of the species, as well as possible effects of exploitation for the wild bird trade, although the likely rate has not been estimated.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It inhabits montane rain forest between 900 and 3,000 m, where it is rather tame, moving quietly or sitting motionless for long periods, often in the lower and middle storeys, but also in the canopy. It is presumed to be largely sedentary, but may make local seasonal movements.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.3
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest loss, degradation and fragmentation, through widespread agricultural encroachment and localised development (e.g. holiday resorts and geothermal projects), is becoming an increasing threat in the lower altitudinal range of the species (900 m -1,500 m). The area above this zone is still relatively secure (N. Brickle in litt. 2012). It has also been recorded the domestic bird trade, albeit in very small numbers (N. Brickle in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in two protected areas, Gunung Gede/Pangrango National Park and Gunung Halimun Nature Reserve (now Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park), both of which provide hope for a range of threatened species endemic to Java. The two areas cover over 500 km2 of forest between 500 m and 3,000 m. A substantial nature reserve has been proposed for Gunung Slamet (an historical site for the species), and a small nature reserve exists on Gunung Tangkuban Prahu, from where there are also historical records.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys for the species at all mountains potentially within its range to clarify its current distribution and population status. Propose key sites for establishment as protected areas, or as extensions to existing reserves. Cooperate with local authorities and relevant companies to minimise the impact of tourism and development projects on forested mountains within its range.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Cochoa azurea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22710153A38291458. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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