||Turdus menachensis Ogilvie-Grant, 1913
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||23 cm. Medium-sized, rather plain, brown thrush. Throat is streaked blackish. Some spotting on breast of some individuals. In flight shows orange underwing-coverts. May show dirty orange wash on flanks when perched. Stout bill is orange-yellow and legs vary from flesh-coloured to yellow (Bowden 1987). Voice Fluty song is series of high-pitched phrases, mostly heard at dawn. Most typical call is explosive chuck-chuck. Hints Can be very skulking and remain motionless for long periods (Porter et al. 1996). Best located by call.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Al-Sagheir, O., Jennings, M., Porter, R., Roberts, P. & Babbington, J.
||Ekstrom, J., Mahood, S., Martins, R., Taylor, J., Ashpole, J, Westrip, J., Symes, A.
Recent population estimates have placed the population size as >10,000 mature individuals. However, the population is still considered to be relatively small and in decline owing to the loss and degradation of its montane woodland habitat. Therefore, it is now listed as Near Threatened.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1996 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1988 – Threatened (T)
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to the south-western Arabian peninsula, occurring in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, north to 21°N (Bowden 1987). It is strictly montane (Porter et al. 1996) and has a very local distribution, being generally scarce (Bowden 1987) where it occurs (although occasionally numerous in some areas [Stagg 1984, Jennings et al. 1988, Newton and Newton 1996]). In Saudi Arabia the species is often common and widespread (M. Jennings in litt. 2016) and even occurs in fragmented woodland areas close to human habitation (J. Babbington and P. Roberts in litt. 2016), whilst in Yemen it is rather rare and local (M. Jennings in litt. 2016). However, the population has been estimated at c.10,000 pairs (Jennings 2010), implying that there is a population of c.20,000 adults (M. Jennings in litt. 2012).|
Saudi Arabia; Yemen
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||147000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||11-100||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||1200|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||3100|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Data from the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Arabia (Jennings 2010) provides a population estimate of c.10,000 pairs. Therefore, the population size is placed here in the range 10,000-19,999 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: There are no new data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be declining slowly, owing to habitat loss and degradation. Studies in Asir, Saudi Arabia, show that the population has undergone a decline however this could be owing to temporary factors such as a recent drought in the region (M. Jennings in litt. 2016). The evidence for a declining population trend overall in not clear and further studies are required (M. Jennings in litt. 2016).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||10000-19999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||1||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||Yes|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||100|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is confined to areas with a dense cover of native trees and shrubs - thus occurring in woodlands, thickets, copses, orchards and large gardens, although foraging in more open habitats if dense wooded cover is nearby (Stagg 1984, Bowden 1987, Jennings et al. 1988, Newton and Newton 1996, Porter et al. 1996). In gardens and parks it uses exotic and introduced species for food, nesting and cover (M. Jennings in litt. 2016). At the lowest altitudes, it is restricted to such vegetation along watercourses. At most localities it appears to be sedentary, but there may be altitudinal or latitudinal movements in the north of its range (Stagg 1984). The diet includes fruit (e.g. Rosa, Juniperus, Ficus) and terrestrial invertebrates (Phillips 1982, Bowden 1987). Breeding occurs from March to June, the nest being 1-2 m above ground in a bush or tree-fork, usually in dense cover (Bowden 1987). |
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||6.1|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|