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Turdus eremita 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Turdidae

Scientific Name: Turdus eremita
Species Authority: (Gould, 1855)
Common Name(s):
English Tristan Thrush
Synonym(s):
Nesocichla eremita Gould, 1855
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Rowlands, B., Ryan, P.G. & Bond, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): O'Brien, A., Robertson, P., Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Stringer, C.
Justification:
This species is classed as Near Threatened because it has a small population, which occupies a restricted range. There is presently no serious threat to the species and no evidence of declines in either its population or range, but if such evidence was obtained this species might qualify for a higher threat category.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Nesocichla eremita is endemic to Tristan da Cunha (to UK) in the South Atlantic Ocean, where it is found on Tristan, Inaccessible, Nightingale, Middle and Stoltenhoff islands with distinct subspecies on each of the three main islands. In 1972-1974, island population sizes were estimated as follows (in pairs): Tristan 40-60; Inaccessible 100-500; Nightingale 300-500; Middle 20-40; and Stoltenhoff 10-20 (Richardson 1984). In the 1980s, the Inaccessible population was revised to 850 pairs, and the total population for the group to 6,000 birds (Fraser et al. 1994). More recently, the Tristan population has been estimated (very crudely, but conservatively) as at least several hundred birds (P. G. Ryan in litt. 2000).

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (Tristan da Cunha)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:810
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:No
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In 1972-1974, island population sizes were estimated as follows (in pairs): Tristan 40-60; Inaccessible 100-500; Nightingale 300-500; Middle 20-40; and Stoltenhoff 10-20. In the 1980s, the Inaccessible population was revised to 850 pairs, and the total population for the group to 6,000 birds. More recently, the Tristan population has been estimated (very crudely, but conservatively) as at least several hundred birds (P. G. Ryan in litt. 2000). It is best placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  There is presently no serious threat to the species and no evidence of declines in either its population or range, thus the species's population is currently suspected to be stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1500-7000Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species uses virtually all available habitats including boulder-strewn shorelines, tussock grassland, fern-bush and wet heath. It feeds opportunistically on dead birds, fish offal, kitchen scraps and the eggs and fledglings of other birds as well as earthworms and invertebrates taken from leaves and detritus (Fraser et al. 1994). Breeding takes place in September-February (del Hoyo et al. 2005). Its nest is a rough cup of woven tussock fronds and grass stalks with some moss and leaves, placed on or just above the ground. It lays two or three, sometimes four, eggs. The fledging period is c.20 days (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.3
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): On Tristan, predation by black rats Rattus rattus is a possible threat. Translocations of birds between islands was a common practice in the past, and may have resulted in hybridisation between birds from different islands (P. G. Ryan in litt. 2000). However, these translocations no longer takes place (A. Bond in litt. 2016).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Cats were a major problem on Tristan, but were eradicated (Richardson 1984).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to obtain an up-to-date total population estimate. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Assess the impact of predation by rats. Control rat numbers on Tristan, and prevent further introductions of mammalian predators. 


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Turdus eremita. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22708541A94164004. . Downloaded on 01 May 2017.
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