||Corvus pectoralis Gould, 1836
Corvus torquatus Lesson, 1831
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||52cm - 55cm. Adult is all dark with diagnostic white collar across nape, hindneck and lower breast. Juvenile is similar but plumage lacks gloss and collar somewhat duller with dark feather tips. Voice: Call include a loud repeated "kaaarr" or "kaar-karr" as well as various cawing creaking and clicking sounds.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Chan, S., Cheng-te, Y., Eames, J.C., Fellowes, J., Lau, M., Leader, P., Lewthwaite, R., Tordoff, J., Trai, L., Wilson, D. & Wright, J.
||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened owing to a recent moderately rapid population reduction, which is thought to be the result of prey depletion owing to agricultural intensification and the consequent over-use of pesticides and rodenticides. This decline is thought to be on-going, and were it found to be greater in magnitude than currently thought, the species may be uplisted further.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2008 – Near Threatened (NT)
- 2004 – Least Concern (LC)
- 2000 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||This species was historically fairly common over a large area encompassing southern China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and northern Vietnam. However, it is undergoing a continuing decline in numbers across its range and is now only regular at a few sites in southern China, such as coastal Fujian, Nanjing, Shenzhen (Guangdong) and in the Plover Cove and Deep Bay areas, Hong Kong ( S. Chan in litt. 2007, P. Leader in litt. 2007, R. Lethwaite in litt. 2007). The latter site appears to be the stronghold, and the only location where recent counts have reached 100 individuals (P. Leader in litt. 2007). In most areas where there were hundreds of birds 15 years ago, such as on Kinmen (an offshore island near Fukien, China) where in 1989 up to 176 individuals could be found, it has declined to such an extent that single figure counts are now the norm (Y. Cheng-te in litt. 2007). In Taiwan, it is now considered no more than a very rare resident or vagrant. There were only three recent records from Vietnam (J. C. Eames in litt. 2007, J. Tordoff in litt. 2007), until the sighting in late 2011 of up to 10 groups, each of c.12 birds, in northern Cao Bang province, northern Vietnam (J. Wright in litt. 2011). |
China; Hong Kong; Viet Nam
Present - origin uncertain:
Taiwan, Province of China
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||3120000|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||60|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The number of mature individuals is thought to exceed 10,000, based on an estimate of c.200 in Hong Kong (S. Chan in litt. 2007), thus the population is placed in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals. Brazil (2009) estimates the population in China at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and the population in Taiwan at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs.|
Trend Justification: The species is suspected to be declining at a moderately rapid rate, owing mainly to agricultural intensification and persecution.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||10000-19999||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|